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Eponyms - D

Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D., Posted on Thursday, April 15 @ 18:13:01 IST by RxPG  

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Eponyms

DA COSTA SYNDROME
neurocirculatory asthenia, pain localized typically to the cardiac apex and consists of dull, persistent ache that lasts for hours, etc.

DAHL'S SIGN
in COPD, protracted pressure applied by the elbows leads eventually to the formation of two patches of hyperpigmented calluses immediately above the knees

DALRYMPLE SIGN
retraction of the upper eyelid in Graves's disease, causing abnormal wideness of the palpebral fissure

DALTONISM
color blindness, from John Dalton (who proposed atomic theory), born 1766; felt that color blindness was from vitreous humor being blue, disproved his assistant Joseph Ransome who examined his eyeballs post mortem

DANCE'S SIGN
empty right lower quadrant in children with ileocecal intussusception

DANDY-WALKER SYNDROME
hydrocephalus resulting from failure of the foramina Luschka and Magendie to open; associated with an occipital meningocele and agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and splenium of the corpus callosum; associated with warfarin use during pregnancy

DANE PARTICLE
mature HBV virion, 42 nm, double-layered, genome is double-stranded circular DNA, all regions of genome encode stuff

DARIER'S SIGN
in mastocytosis (urticaria pigmentosa), is positive when a brown macular or a slightly papular lesion becomes a palpable wheal after being vigorously rubbed with the blunt end of an instrument such as a pen; wheal may not appear for 5-10 minutes

DARKSCHEWITSCH, NUCLEUS OF
an ovoid cell group in the ventral central gray substance rostral to the oculomotor nucleus, receiving fibers from the vestibular nuclei by way of the medial longitudinal fasiculus; projections are not known, although some cross in the posterior commissure

DARWIN'S TUBERCLE
completely benign and congenital nodule, located near the superior aspect of the auricle (approximately 2/3 of the way from the bottom of the helix), described by Charles Darwin

DAWSON'S FINGERS
in multiple scelrosis, perivascular demyelination creating the appearance of finger projections oriented transversely on an axial scan

DE MUSSET'S SIGN
in aortic regurgitation, head bobbing, named after 19th century French poet who had luetic aortic insufficiency

DE QUERVAIN'S DISEASE
a stenosing tenosynovitis of the thumb extensors and abductors

DE QUERVAIN'S THYROIDITIS
subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, viral etiology suspected

DEJERINE-ROUSSY SYNDROME
thalamic lesions causing sensory loss, spontaneous pain, and perverted cutaneous sensation described in 1906

DEJERINE-SOTTAS DISEASE
hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy III, recessive inheritance, slowly progressive demyelinating disorer, presents in infancy or childhood and progresses to cause severe disability by 30s; nerves typically enlarged

DENNIE'S LINES
in atopic dermatitis, an accentuated line or fold below the margin of the lower eyelid

DENT'S DISEASE
X-linked syndrome characterized by renal proximal tubular dysfunction, proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and rickets due to mutation in voltage-gated chloride channel

DENYS-DRASH SYNDROME
gonadal dysgenesis (male pseudohermaphroditism) and nephropathy leading to renal failure with increased risk of Wilms's tumor; dominant negative missense mutation of WT-1

DESTOT'S SIGN
scrotal hematoma suggesting pelvic fracture

DEVIC'S DISEASE
demyelinating disorder common in Asians that presents as transverse myelitis associated with optic neuritis that is typiclaly bilateral

DI GUGLIELMO SYNDROME
a non-nutritive megaloblastic anemia in which malignant red cell precursors are particularly evident

DI GUGLIELMO'S DISEASE
AML M6, erythroleukemia

DIAMOND-BLACKFAN ANEMIA
congenital pure red cell aplasia characterized by increased MCV, reticulocytopenia, bone marrow erythroblastopenia; can be diagnosed by increased erythrocyte adenosine deaminase; 40% associated with congenital abnormalities; associated with RPS19 ribosomal protein mutations in some; responds to steroids which increase Epo sensitivity

DICK TEST
injection of erythogenic toxin of Strep. pyogenes, positive result in those lacking antitoxin

DIEULAFOY'S ANEURYSM
around 6 cm from the gastroesophageal junction, an uncommon cause of massive GI bleeding, a large submucosal artery erodes the mucosa without any overlying ulceration or other obvious mucosal damage

DIGEORGE SYNDROME
failure of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches to differentiate into the thymus and parathyroid glands, facial abnormalities result primarily from abnormal development of the first arch components during formation of face and ears, 22q11 deletion, CATCH-22 (cardiac abnormality/abnormal facies, T-cell deficit owing to thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia)

DIMPLE SIGN
in dermatofibroma, lateral compression with thumb and index finger produces a depression, or "dimple."

DISSE, SPACE OF
subendothelial space in liver separating endothelial cells from underdlying hepatocytes which contains hepatocyte microvilli

DIX-HALLPIKE TEST
for testing benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, examiner stands at the patient's right side and rotates the patient's head 45 degrees to the right to align the right posterior semicircular canal with the sagital plane of the body; the examiner moves the patient, whose eyes are open, from the seated to the supine right-ear-down position and then extends the patient's neck slightly so that the chin is pointed slightly upward.

DΦHLE BODIES
irregularly shaped greenish inclusions in neutrophil cytoplasm, consisting of ribosomes and/or rough ER and are seen in severe bacterial infections

DOI'S SIGN
elicitation of diminished deep tendon reflexes after maximal voluntary contraction in Lambert-Eton syndrome

DONATH-LANDSTEINER ANTIBODY
in paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, an antibody associated with syphilis and viral infections, directed against the P antibody complex and can induce complement-mediated lysis; attacks precipitated by exposure to cold and are associated with hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria; chills and fever; back, leg, and abdominal pain; headache and malaise; recovery prompt; asymptomatic otherwise

DONOVAN BODIES
in Calymmatobacterium granulomatis or granuloma inguinale, bodies characterized by multiple organisms filling large histiocytes

DOUGLAS, POUCH OF
rectouterine pouch

DOWN SYNDROME
trisomy 21 (in 95%), 1/700 births, 1% mosaics, 40% have congenital heart disease. trisomy 21, 10-20 fold increased risk of acute leukemia, virtually all older than 40 develop Alzheimer's, abnormal immune system

DRESSLER'S SYNDROME
pericarditis, possible autoimmune etiology, found to develop 2 weeks to several months after acute MI

DRUCKREY RELATIONSHIP
relationship between carcinogen dose and tumor induction time: dtn = k where d is the dose of carcinogen, t is latency period, n is the slope of the double log [plot of carcinogen dose versus induction time, and k is a constant

DUBIN-JOHNSON SYNDROME
mostly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia from defect in transport of bilirubin and other organic anions across the canaliculus; other liver function tests normal; accumulation of dark pigment in liver lysosomes

DUCHENNE'S MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
X-linked, near or complete absence of dystrophin (normally stabilizes glycoprotein complex on cytoplasmic face of plasma membrane of muscle fibers and protects it from degradation), onset of weakness age 2-3, proximal weakness of limb muscles, Gower's maneuver, pseudohypertrophy of calves caused by fatty infiltration, cardiomyopathy, frequently mental retardation, CK elevated, wheelchair bound by age of 12

DUMPING SYNDROME
delivery of a large amount of hyperosmolar chyme into the small bowel, usually after vagotomy and a gastric drainage procedure, results in autonomic instability, abdominal pain, and diarrhea

DUNCAN'S DISEASE
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, normal response to childhood infections but develop fatal lymphoproliferative disorders after infection with EBV; most patients with this syndrome die of infectious mononucleosis

DUNPHY SIGN
increased pain with coughing in appendicitis

DUPUYTREN'S CONTRACTURE
palmar fibromatosis

DURANT'S MANEUVER
left lateral decubitus position, used in managing air embolism

DURET HEMORRHAGE
hemorrhage from uncal herniation

DUROZIEZ'S SIGN
in aortic regurgitation, systolic murmur heard over the femoral artery when it is compressed proximally and a diastolic murmur when it is compressed distally

DUTCHER BODIES
PAS-positive inclusions containing Ig in the nucleus of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and intermediate plymphocytes in Waldenstrφm macroglobulinemia and multiple myeloma


Note: Eponyms Database Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D. (website: eponyms.net)

You can also revise eponyms using eponyms revision tool available at Eponyms Crammer



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