RxPG - the perfect Rx for medical Post Graduate entrance blues!
Mobile Edition | Help/Newbie? | 24/7 Support
HOT | PrePG | MCQ | DNB | Careers | Books | Colleges | Dental | DocIndia | PLAB |  USMLE  | Australia | Canada | GLOBAL | OffBeat!
Articles | Forums | MCQ Crammer | Downloads | Mnemonics | Revision Tools | Recent Shouts | All Features

Meniere’s disease

Author: Wikipedia, Posted on Friday, September 17 @ 20:06:37 IST by RxPG  

 FRIEND Add to My Pages   PRINTER Printer Friendly   FRIEND Email Story  FRIEND Download Story  ENT alerts 


Ménière’s disease (or syndrome, since its cause its unknown) was first described by French physician Prosper Ménière in 1861. It is a disorder of the inner ear characterized by vertigo (abnormal sensation of movement), a feeling of fullness or pressure in one or both ears, and possibly loss of hearing and tinnitus (noises or a sensation of ringing). Moreover, nausea, vomiting, sweating and nystagmus (uncontrollable rhythmical and jerky eye movements; usually in horizontal plane with Ménière's) may frequently accompany other symptoms. These complaints and findings occur as episodic bouts, which may last from minutes to hours and worsen with movements.

The exact cause of Ménière's disease is not known, but it is believed to be caused by the swelling of the endolymphatic sac, part of the vestibular system of the inner ear, which is responsible for the body's sense of balance. The symptoms may occur in the presence of a middle ear infection, head trauma or an upper respiratory tract infection, or by using aspirin, smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol. They may be further exacerbated by excessive consumption of caffeine and even salt in some patients.

The diagnosis is usually established by clinical findings and medical history. However, a detailed neurologic examination, audiometry and even head MRI scan can be performed to exclude a tumor of the cranial nerve VIII (which would cause similar symptoms).

Treatment is aimed at lowering the pressure within the inner ear. Antihistamines, anticholinergics, steroids, and diuretics may be used for this purpose. Also, the symptoms may be treated with antiemetics (to relieve nausea) or benzodiazepines (which control vertigo directly). Some clinicians may recommend a low salt diet for the same purpose. Surgery of the semicircular canals or the vestibular nerve is very rarely performed in some untreatable and most severe cases. Another treatment is chemical labyrinthectomy, in which a drug (such as Gentamycin) that "kills" the vestibular apparatus is injected into the inner ear. These radical treatments eliminate vertigo, but they also eliminate the patient's normal sense of balance, and so are used only as a last resort. The disease may end spontaneously and never repeat again, recovery may be managed by using medications only, and in some limited occasions the symptoms may last despite any kind of medications.

4 (Excellent) 3(Good) 2(Good) 1(Bad)   

Recommended Books for ENT
 Books to read for ENT by RxPG

Related ENT articles
 Various Eponymous Signs in ENT
 Meniere’s disease

Related ENT Discussions

Other articles by Wikipedia
 What is a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) - Overview
 Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT) - Introduction, Classification and Overview
 Overview of Types and Various Phases of Clinical Trials
 What is a Meta Analysis?
 What is a Systematic Review?
 What is a Clinical Audit?
 Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) - First Oral Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor
 Clopidogrel - The Super Aspirin
 Donepezil - centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor
 Topiramate - A Monosaccharide Anticonvulsant
 Digoxin - Cardiac Glycoside from Foxglove Plant
 Vigabatrin = VIsual side effects + GABA TRansaminase INhibitor
 Olanzapine - Thienobenzodiazepine Atypical Antipsychotic
 Risperidone - Most Commonly Used Atypical Antipsychotic
 Clozapine - The First Atypical Antipsychotic
 Quetiapine - D1 and D2 dopamine antagonist
 Ziprasidone - The Atypical Amongst Atypical Antipsychotics
 Alemtuzumab - Monoclonal Antibody Used in the Treatment of Leukemia and Lymphoma
 Abciximab - A Platelet Aggregation Inhibitor
 Bevacizumab (Avastin) - An Anti-Angiogenesis Anti Cancer Drug

  Browse all FAQs

Write an Article on ENT
You can share your exam experiences, preparation strategies, books you have read or just any information about ENT on RxPG website and we will publish it under your name.

Article Rating
Average Score: 3
Votes: 2

Most Read Article
Various Eponymous Signs in ENT

Related Links


· ENT section
· Articles by Wikipedia
· Add to my pages
· Printer friendly version
· PDF version
· Email article
· Feedback on this article
· Medical tutorials
· Related forum posts
· Related articles
· Related downloads
· Submit article
· ENT alerts
· ENT books
· ENT past papers

Most read story about ENT:
Various Eponymous Signs in ENT

Server Status: 130 pages served in last minute. Page generation time: 0.037 seconds

Site Maps: [Books] [News] [Forums] [Reviews] [Mnemonics]

sitemap - top30 - centuries - testimonials

About Us :: Disclaimer :: Contact Us :: Reporting abuse :: Terms of Services :: Privacy Policy

Advertise with RxPG!
Made in India by RxPG Medical Solutions Private Limited

"RxPG" is a Registered Trademark

Chrome Web Store YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Wikipedia Facebook