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MRCOG Part 1 March 1997 Paper-2

Author: sajida, Posted on Monday, April 25 @ 15:24:49 IST by RxPG  

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MRCOG Part 1

March 1997 Paper-2

1.Following changes in ventilation occur during pregnancy
a-decrease in respiratory rate
b-decrease in pCO2
c-decrease in residual volume
d-derease in tidal volume
e-an increase in PCO2

2-Following are req. for hemostatic clot formation
a-conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
b-platelete phospholipids
c-active conversion of plasminogen to plasmin
d-fibrin degradation products
e-antithrombin

3-Myometrial contractility
a-is calcium dependent
b-is associated with phosphorylation of myosin light chain
c-is independent of cAMP
d-is mediated by somatic nervs
e-dep. on myometrial gap junctions

4-Following values fall within normal range for adult female bladder
a-residual urine-100 ml.
b-voiding vol.-250 ml.
c-bladder capacity- 900 ml
d-intravescical pr. rise of less than 10 cm of water during early filling
e- max. urine flow rate of 60 ml/sec.


5-Parenchymal cells of liver
a-can convert fructose to glucose
b-synthesise urea
c-conjugate bilirubin
d-excrete bromsulphthalein
e-synthesise cholesterol

6-In testis
a-maturation from spermatogonia to spermatozoa takes about 29 days
b-sertoli cells can mature into spermatids
c-leydig cells produce inghibin
d-LH inihibits secretion of testosterone
e-large quanities of fructose are present in seminal fluid

7-Functions of spleen in a healthy adult includes-
a-erythropoesis
b-destruction of erythrocytes
c-formation of B lymphocytes
d-phagocytosis of bacteria
e-production of erythropoietin

8-Neonatal jaundice may be caused by
a-congenital hypothyroidism
b-phenylketonuria
c-galactosaemia
d-fructosaemia
e-long acting sulphonamides

9-Concerning vagus nerves
a-when stimulated it has little direct effect on the strength of ventricular contraction
b-it has afferent nerve fibres
c-stimulation increases heart rate
d-it innervates jejunum
e-it is involved in Hering Breuer relex


10-In normal subjects following increase ventilation
a-a change in arterial PO2 from 13.1 KPa ( 98 mm Hg) to 8 KPa ( 60 mm hg)
b-a change in arterial pH from 7.36 to 7.48
c-a change in arterial PCO2 from 5.9 KPa ( 44 mmm Hg) to 8 KPa ( 60 mm Hg)
d- administration of doxapram
e-pregnancy

11-Following statements relate to plasma proteins
a-They create an oncotic pressure of 3.3 KPa ( 25 mm Hg) across the capillary walls
b-they form a major part of cationic pool
c-All are manufactured in liver
d-Albumin hs a lower molecular weight than fibrinogen
e-Fibrinogen is freely filtered at the glomerulus

12-In a healthy young non pregnant women at rest
a-80% of body wt. is water
b-75% of extracellular fluid is outside the blood vessel
c-plasma volume is about 5 litres
d-pH of plasma is about 7.25
e-plasma osmolality is about 400 mosmol/litre

13-In normal adult circulation
a-pressure in left ventricle during diastole is twice the atmospheric pressure
b-aortic blood pressure during diastole is about 2/3 of that during systole
c-resistance in peripheral blood vessels is inversely proportional to fourth power of vessel radius
d-arterioles are not subject to sympathetic stimulation except during exercise
e-increaed carotid sinus baroreceptor activity increase the heart rate

14-Heart rare typically increase in response to
a-pain
b-hypoxia
c-ventilatory expiration
d-increased intracranial pressure
e-decreaesd barorecepror activity


15-In a healthy woman renin
a-is secreted only by kidney
b-plasma concentration is greater in pregnant than in non pregnant state
c-plasma conc. is increased by diuretic therapy
d-converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin II
e-activity is blocked by captopril

16-Concerning human parturition
a-no. of oxytocin receptors in myometrium increases before the onset of labour
b-in the primigravida , cervical dilatation usually precedes cervical effacement
c-the plasma oxytocin conc. increases at the onset of labour
d-oxytocin stimulates the synthesis of prostaglandins within uterus
e-contraction of maternal abd. muscles is essential for spontaneous vaginal delivery

17-Arterial plasma at 13 weeks gestation in normal pregnant woman
a-has a freezing point of 0.5 degree centigrade
b-has an osmolality of 190 mosmol/litre
c-has a PCO2 of 4KPa ( 30 mm Hg)
d-has a creatinine conc. of 200 micromol/litre ( 2.26 mg/ml)
e-has a sodium concentration of 140 mmol/litre( 140 meq/litre)

18-Recognised effects of pregnancy include
a-transient impairment of glcose tolerance
b-raised GFR
c-raised plasma conc of free tyrosine
d-reduced plasma conc of alkaline phosphatase
e-increased secretion of prolactin


19-In the small intestine ,following substances are absorbed by active processes
a-water
b-sodium
c-vit K
d-amino acids
e-chloride

20-Collagen-
a-has a double helical structure
b-shows a regular banding patern on electron microscopy
c- is not formed normally in the absence of ascorbic acid
d-is not found in basement memberanes
e-synthesis is inhibited by glucocorticoids

21-White cell migration from blood vessels in areas of inflammation involves
a-cell migration occurring between endothelial cells
b-passive loss of fluid blood elements
c-cell migration independent of endothelial cell motion
d-initial migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophills
e-more polymorphs than monocytes after 2 days

22-Carcinoma in situ in epithelium ( intraepithelial neolasia) is characterise by
a-increased miotic activity
b-loss of polarity
c-increased adhesiveness to underlying stroma
d-pyknosis
e-increased thickness of epithelium

23-Following provide conclusive evidence of pregnancy in uterine curettings
a-decidua compacta
b-Arias stella changes in endometrial glands
c-spiral arterioles
d-plasma cell infiltration
e-chorionic vili

24-In acute tubular necrosis of kidney
a-lesion is reversible
b-kidney is small
c-25% of deaths occur in diuretic phase
d-DCT are mainly affected in mercury poisoning
e-proteinaceous casts are found in collecting ducts

25-Complications of myocardial infarction include
a-fibous pericrditis
b-aortic aneurysm
c-ventricular mural thrombi
d-coronary atherosclerosis
e-ventricular aneurysm

26-In the pathogenesis of thrombosis
a-prostacyclin induces platelet aggregation
b-plateletes synthesis thromboxane A2
c-thromboxane A2 induces vasoconstriction
d-contact with subendothelial collagen causes platelete aggregation
e-thrombin inhibits platelete aggregation


27-Characteristics of addisonian pernicious anaemia include
a-leucocytosis
b-inheritance as autosomal dominant trait
c-a raised mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration
d- increased incidence of gastric neoplasia
e-an increased incidence of primary hypothyroidism

28-Immunodeficiency states may be associated with
a-viral infection of T lymphocyte
b-B cell lymphomas
c-glucocoticoid administration
d-haemolytic disease of the new born
e-untreated hodgkin’s lymphoma

29 –B lymphocytes
a-produce TNF
b-produce complement
c-produce antibodies
d-contribute to delayed hypersensitivity
e-produce IgE

30-Antibodies
a-are proteins
b-are formed in the fetus before 12 wks of intrauterine life
c-have an av. mol. wt. of around 10,000 daltons
d-of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted
e- are produced by ribosomes of plasma cells


31-Type III ( immune complex related) hypersensitivity is characterised by
a-damage localised to a particular cell type
b-decreased vascular permeability
c-microthrombus formation
d-complement activation
e-mediation by Ig E antibodies

32-Following disorders have an X linked pattern of inheritance
a-G6PD def.
b--klienfelter syndrome
c-adrenogenital syndrome
d-hemophilia B
e-familial hypercholesterolaemia

33-In the female
a-only the X chromosome of maternal origin is active
b-barr body is sex chromatin
c-80% of polymorphonuclear leukocytes have a ‘drumstick’ appearance of chromatin
d-an extra X chromosome is associated with 2 barr bodies
e- an extra X chromosome is associated with below average intelligence

34-In DNA
a-a codon is a sequence of 3 bases
b-all codons have identified function
c-there’s a greater variety of aminoacids than there are diff. codons
d-replication can be initiated at several different points along a chromosome
e-complementary pairing precedes mRNA synthesis

35-The following genetic disorders are inherited as autosomal recessives
a-Duchenne muscular dystrophy
b-Huntington’s chorea
c-Tay sachs disease
d-retinoblastoma
e-achondroplasia

36-In experimental conditions, ultrasound may produce biological effects on tissues by following means
a-accleration of cell div.
b-heat generation
c-cavitation
d-duplication of chromosome numbers
e-microstreaming

37-Concerning radiation physics
a-an electron has a greater mass than a proton
b-a positron has a same charge as an electron
c-a proton has a positive charge
d-a neutron has almost the same mass as proton
e-the hydrogen nucleus is a neutron

38-Conversion of glucose to lactic acid
a-occurs in a single enzymatic reaction
b-is the only pathway for synthesis of ATP in red blood cells
c-is a reversible process in skeletal muscle
d-is inhibited by high cellular concentrations of ATP
e-occurs in skeletal muscle when availability of oxygen is limited

39 Uric acid
a-is formed from breakdown of purines
b-is raised in serum during normal pregnancy
c-is increasedin serum during thiazide therapy
d-is reabsorbed in proximal renal tubule
e-is excreted unchanged in urine

40-Adenine
a-is a pyrimidine base
b-forms base pairs with thymine in RNA
c-is synthesised attached to ribose phosphate
d-can be converted directly to a nucleotide by the action of phosphoribosyl transferase enzymes
e-is degraded by a pathway which involves the enzyme xanthine oxidase

41-Bilirubin
a-is a steroid
b-is bound to albumin in ciculation
c-conjugates iron
d-can be converted directly to glycerine
e-facilitates absorption of fat from the gut

42-Combined salt and water depletionis associated with
a-high conc. of sodium in urine
b-high urine specific gravity
c-pre renal uremia
d-fall in central venous pressure
e-high blood urea concentration

43-Normal human seminal fluid
a-coagulates in vitro
b-contains sucrose
c-has a pH of 5
d-may contain 15% morphologically abnormal spermatozoa
e-is predominantly produced within testis

44-Ethanol
a-consumed in excess stimulates fatty acid oxidation
b-suppresses arginine vasopressin secretion
c-promotes gluconeogenesis
d-is oxidised to acetaldehyde
e-is metabolised predominantly by liver

45-Glucocorticoids
a-promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis
b-suppreses uptake of glucose by muscles
c-promote protein breakdown
d-promote fat breakdown
e-increase glycolysis in adipose tissue

46-Cholesterol
a-is an essential dietary requirement
b-is present in plasma memberane of all human cells
c-can not be synthesised in liver
d-is transported in circulation bound to albumin
e-is a precursor for synthesis of steroid hormone

47-Haemoglobin
a-has 4 porphyrin rings
b-can carry 4 mol. of oxygen
c-binds carbon monoxide more readily than oxygen
d-is synthesised in mature erythrocytes
e-contains 2 beta chains

48-HbF
a-is not formed before 20 wks of intrauterine life
b-is more resistant than adult haemoglobin to denaturation by alkali
c-in the fetus constitutes 80-90% of Hb at term
d-represents less than 5% of total Hb 8 weeks after birth
e-is increased in adult patients with beta thallasaemia

49-Fibrinogen
a-levels are usually low during pregnancy
b-is a substrate for thrombin
c-at elevated plasma levels causes a reduction in ESR
d-is synthesised in liver
e-is a Bence Jones’ protein

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