Origin of the earth; Geological Time Scale; Interior of the earth; Types and characteristics of rocks; Folding and Faulting; Volcanoes; Earthquakes; Weathering; Landforms caused by fluvial, aeolian and glacial actions.
Structure and composition of atmosphere; Temperature; Pressure belts and Wind systems; Clouds and rainfall types; Cyclones and anti-cyclones; Major climatic types.
Ocean relief; Temperature; Salinity; Ocean deposits; Ocean currents, El Nino and La Nino; Waves and tides.
Origin and types of soils; Major biomes of the world; Ecosystem and food chain; Environmental degradation and conservation.
i) Man and Environment Relationship
Growth and development of Human Geography; Concepts of Determinism and Possibilism.
Races of mankind and tribes; growth and distribution of world population; migration; population problems of developed and developing countries.
iii) Economic Activities
Food gathering and hunting; pastoral herding; fishing and forestry; Types of agriculture-shifting, subsistence, commercial and plantation; Mining, Power; Manufacturing -locational factors of textile, iron and steel, sugar and fertilizer industries; Tertiary activities-trade, transport, communication and services.
Origin, types and patterns of rural settlements; Processes of urbanisation; morphology and functional classification of towns; million-cities and mega-cities.
Geography of the World
i) Major Natural Regions : Characteristics, economic base and human adaptation.
ii) Regional Geography of Developed Countries : Canada, U.S.A., Western Europe, Russia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.
iii) Regional Geography of Developing Countries : S.E. Asia, S.W. Asia, China, Southern Africa and Brazil.
iv) Regional Geography of South Asia.
Geography of India
i) Physical Setting
Landforms, drainage, climate, soils and natural vegetation.
ii) Economic Base
Minerals & energy resources, aquatic resources, forest resources; irrigation, agriculture and industries; trade and commerce.
Growth, distribution and density; demographic characteristics.
iv) Environmental problems, developmental issues and regional planning.
i) Ancient Period : Contributions of Indians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs.
ii) Pre-Modern Period : Contribution of Verenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter.
iii) Modern Period : Dichotomy of determinism and possibilism; contributions of Ratzel, Semple, Huntington and La Blache.
iv) Recent Period : Quantitive Revolution; Radicalism, Behaviouralism and Humanism.
Techniques of Geographical Analysis
i) Maps : Scale and types, uses.
ii) Diagrams : Types and uses
iii) Projections : Types, characteristics and uses.
iv) Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) : Aerial photographs and imagery, GIS.
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