Following is the concept note on MIRAA - Multiple Index Related Affirmative Action. I propose this as a new and comprehensive system of Affirmative Action taking into account not just caste but also economic conditions, region, educational qualifications, gender and status of a first generation learner. It is an alternative to mere caste and quota based reservation, which has been derided for compromising on "merit" and for perpetuating the institution of Caste.
I invite you to read this note and then give your comments by contacting me
via email or the online FEEDBACK form.
The Indian Government's intention of introducing caste based quotas for the
"Other Backward Classes" in centrally funded institutions of higher learning and
the Prime minister's suggestion to the private sector to 'voluntarily go in for
reservation', has once again sparked off a debate on the merits and demerits of
caste-based reservations. Unfortunately, the predictable divide between the
votaries of "social justice" on one hand and those advocating "merit" on the
other seems to have once again camouflaged the real issues. It is necessary to
take a holistic and non-partisan view of the issues involved.
The hue and cry about "sacrificing merit" is untenable simply because merit is
after all a social construct and it cannot be determined objectively in a
historically unjust and unequal context. The idea of competitive merit will be
worthy of serious attention only in a broadly egalitarian context. But then,
caste is not the only obstacle in the way of an egalitarian order. After all,
economic conditions, educational opportunities and discrimination on the basis
of gender also contribute to the denial of opportunity to express one's true
merit and worth. It is interesting to note that in the ongoing debate, one side
refuses to see the socially constructed nature of the notion of merit, while the
other side refuses to recognize the multiplicity of the mechanisms of exclusion
with equal vehemence.
The idea of caste-based reservations is justified by the logic of social
justice. This implies the conscious attempt to restructure a given social order
in such a way that individuals belonging to the traditionally and structurally
marginalized social groups get adequate opportunities to actualize their
potential and realize their due share in the resources available. In any
society, particularly in one as diverse and complex as the Indian society, this
is going to be a gigantic exercise and must not be reduced to just one aspect of
state policy. Seen in this light, caste-based reservation has to work in tandem
with other policies ensuring the elimination of the structures of social
marginalization and denial of access. It has to be seen as a means of achieving
social justice and not an end in itself. By the same logic it must be assessed
and audited from time to time like any other social policy and economic
Hence, it is important to discuss reservation in the holistic context of much
required social restructuring and not to convert it into a fetish of 'political
correctness'. Admittedly, caste remains a social reality and a mechanism of
oppression in Indian society. But can we say that caste is the only mechanism of
oppression? Can we say with absolute certainty that poverty amongst the
so-called upper castes has been eradicated? Can we say that the regions of North
East, Jharkhand , Chattisgarh are on par with the glittering metros of Delhi and
Mumbai? Can we say that a pupil from a Panchayat School in Bihar is equipped to
compete with an alumnus of Doon School on an equal footing, even if both of them
belong to the same caste group? One of my students once remarked that he was
regularly compelled to swim across a rivulet in order to reach his school, and
the rivulet in question did not distinguish between Brahmins and Dalits.
Incidentally, this young man happens to be a Brahmin by birth! Can we also say
that gender plays no role in denial of social opportunities? After all, this
society discriminates against girls even before they are born. What to talk of
access or opportunities, they're denied birth itself.
Such discrimination exists across religious and caste lines.
Moreover, the question is: do we want to eliminate caste as a factor of social
relations and political processes or do we want to perpetuate it forever? Is it
not true that by treating caste as the only medium of oppression and hence by
focusing all remedial measures on caste alone, we have only added to the
longevity of caste as the determining factor of social identity? Individuals
have been virtually turned into the epitomes of the caste of their birth -
denying the multiple identities that every individual perforce carries. This
also helps the powerful amongst the generally disempowered sections to corner
most of the benefits of caste-based reservation. Caste, which in reality is only
one of the features of identity at the individual level and the manifestation of
an abhorrent social order at the social and structural level, has been turned
into the essential identity of individual citizens. Such a situation helps only
those politicians who are in search of shortcuts to power. It is harmful for the
cause of a modern social democracy as well as to the cause of individuals in
need of social justice and related affirmative action.
There seems to be a deliberate attempt to mislead public opinion by projecting
caste-based reservation as the only form of affirmative action. Affirmative
action has to "affirm" the social will to rectify unjust structures and
practices in existence. Any society has a multiplicity of such structures and
practices. Any programme of affirmative action has to tackle all these factors
and not elevate any one factor to the level of a political "fetish".
Some of the votaries of caste-based reservation in our country liken it to the
American model of affirmative action. Nothing could be further from the truth.
As a matter of fact, the spirit of AA is contrary to the stagnant quota system
in place in our country. The American system does not have any pre-fixed quota
for those belonging to historically disadvantaged ethnicities. Marquita Sykes
defines the American model as follows: "Affirmative action, the set of public
policies and initiatives designed to help eliminate past and present
discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." This
model is all about the provision of opportunities to those belonging to the
historically disadvantaged communities so that they can be integrated into the
mainstream. This has helped both the corporate sector and public institutions in
America to reflect the diversity of that society to a significant extent. The
American model does not focus exclusively on ethnicity; gender and economic
factors are taken into account as well.
A similar comprehensive model of Affirmative Action was in place in the
Jawaharlal Nehru University admissions policy till 1983, and undoubtedly helped
JNU to reflect the diversity of Indian society along with maintaining the
highest academic standards in the country. Due to administrative expediency,
this system was revoked in favour of the easier to implement and politically
more suitable system of flat caste-based reservation.
I hereby propose a model of affirmative action that I will call MIRAA - Multiple
Index Related Affirmative Action. As the name suggests, this model will take
into account several factors when a candidate is considered for admission or
employment. In the specific situation of our country, MIRAA will consist of the
3. Economic Status of family
4. Kind of schooling received
5. Region where candidate spent his/her formative years
6. Status as a first generation learner/educational achievement in the family
Let me explain how this system will work. There will be no pre-fixed quotas.
MIRAA will be operative on hundred percent of the available seats for education
or employment. Suppose there is a 100-mark scale for entry to a
college/organization. These 100 marks can be distributed amongst entrance test,
interview, and academic performance as per the wishes of the institution in
question. First and foremost, all candidates would be ranked on this hundred
mark scale, depending on their performance in the entrance test, interview etc.
Then MIRAA would be applied and each candidate irrespective of their caste can
potentially benefit from it, due to the different indices, which make up the
system. The maximum points a person can get under MIRAA are 30 and the minimum
is 0. Now the candidate's MIRAA subscore is added to the score s/he achieved in
the admission process described above. This will be the total score. The
candidates whose total score clears the cut-off for a particular subject/job
will then be offered the position.
Hence, this system does take into account both the qualification of the
individual as well as the demands of social and economic justice. Unlike the
quota/percentage system which confines the social justice mechanism only to a
fraction of the available vacancies, MIRAA brings each and every seat under the
ambit of social and economic justice.
The individual indices will carry the following weightage in a scale of 30:
1. Caste/Tribe Index:
SCs/STs 5 points; irrespective of scores on any other index which is part of
MBCs (Most Backward Classes) 4 points; irrespective of scores on any other index
which is part of MIRAA
OBCs (Other Backward Classes; minus the MBCs) 2 points; irrespective of scores
on any other index which is part of MIRAA
5 points for women, irrespective of scores on any other index which is part
3. Economic Status of Family (Maximum 6 points)
Category Notes Points
Category A Families with income greater than or equal to 2,50,001 0
Category B Families with income from 1,00,001 to 2,50,000 3
Category C Families with income less than or up to Rs. 1,00,000 per annum 5
Category D Members of families which are/could be beneficiaries of poverty
alleviation schemes/employment provision schemes of Central/State Governments 6
4. Region where candidate spent his/her formative years (Maximum 5
Category Notes Points
Category A Metros and other large cities 0
Category B State capitals not covered in category 1
Category C All towns. Also covers cities in conflict-ridden regions 3
Category D Villages/tribal hamlets 5
5. Kind of schooling received by candidate (Maximum 5 Points)
Category Notes Points
Category A Well-known public, boarding, residential and convent schools.Member
schools of NPSC and similar bodies 0
Category B Central Government schools like KVs, Jawahar Navodaya etc. 2
Category C Regional language/Hindi medium schools, not covered in categories A
and B 3
Category D Village/Panchayat/Municipal schools 5
Note: If a candidate has studied in a Category A school, then s/he will not be
awarded any points in the region subscale (point 4). The goal is to avoid a
situation where a pupil studying in an exclusive boarding/public school in a
small town gets undue benefit.
6. Status of a First Generation Learner (Maximum 4 Points)
Category Notes Points
Category A Both parents of applicant are at least graduates. 0
Category B One parent graduate, and other is matriculate 1
Category C One of the parents is not matriculate 3
Category D Both parents not matriculate 4
Note: physically challenged, war widows and children of war veterans should
continue to avail of the same benefits as they get under the present system.
MIRAA: Some Illustrative Examples
1. Let us imagine Miss Rani Kuzur from Jharkhand meets the minimum criterion
laid down by a certain college for granting admission. The cut-off for
humanities stream at that particular college is 70.
Now, applying the different indices of MIRAA one by one:
Ø She gets 5 points for being ST
Ø She gets a further 5 points for being a woman
Ø Her family is a beneficiary of the NREG scheme and hence she gets 6 points in
the Economic factors index.
Ø She gets 5 points for belonging to a tribal (Category D) region.
Ø She is awarded a further 5 points for having studied in Panchayat School.
Ø She gets another 4 points for being a first generation learner in her family.
So, Miss Rani Kuzur is awarded 30 MIRAA points, which is the maximum attainable
MIRAA score. Now this is added to her qualifying scores, which let us say is 42
(which includes her previous academic performance and performance in entrance
exam). Hence she gets a total score of 72/100 and hence qualifies for admission.
The 30 MIRAA points help her to negotiate all the factors of structured social
and economic marginilazation working against her as an individual.
2. Now let us consider a contrasting case. There is a Mr. Ramesh Yadav, son of a
brick kiln owner who also happens to be a politician. He gets only 2 MIRAA
points for belonging to the OBC category, since he has spent his formative years
in a Category A region, has studied in a public school and both his parents
happen to be graduates. But his similarly placed sister will be awarded 7 MIRAA
points. Had one of the parents of Mr. Ramesh Yadav not been matriculate, he and
his sister would have got an additional 3 points.
3. Let us take yet another example. This is Ms. Sadhna, daughter of a middle
ranking govt. officer belonging to OBC category. Her mother happens to be
illiterate. Sadhna has studied in Kendriya Vidyalaya, of a small town. How does
she fare on MIRAA scale? She gets 5 gender points, 2 OBC points, 3 points for
region, 2 points for schooling and 3 points due to her mother's lack of
education. This brings a total of 15 MIRAA points to Ms. Sadhna. Had her father
been lower level functionary in the govt., she would get either 3 or 5 MIRAA
points for the lower income.
This proposal doesn't take into account the religion of the applicant, as it is
based upon the realization the ubiquitous nature of the institution of caste in
Indian society. Hence, the members of marginalized and disempowered communities
across the religious spectrum will get due benefits. For example, a Kidwai or
Raza Muslim will not be awarded any points under caste index while an Ansari or
a Salmani will get points in accordance with OBC status. The same logic applies
to Christians and others as well.
I request the reader to think, consider and react to MIRAA.
Note from author:
Note: Prior permission from the author has been taken before posting
his work.The author is highly interested in knowing the FEEDBACK of various
strata of the society. The discussion and comments thread is located at http://www.rxpgonline.com/postt48554.html. The official website for MIRAA is located at http://www.purushottamagrawal.com/miraa.html