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Medical Eponyms: A Handy Index

Author: Guest, Posted on Thursday, July 31 @ 16:27:52 IST by rxpg  

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Addison's disease
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency

Adie syndrome
Tonic pupil syndrome - associated with diminished or absent tendon jerks - common in young women.

Agnell's rule
In Wilm's tumor - after resection if no recurrence of tumor for a period of (child's age at presentation) + 9 months - child considered cured.

Allen Brown's criteria
For diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon

Anderson Hynes operation
Dysjunction pyeloplasty for repair of idiopathic P-U junction obstruction.

Aphorism of Mayo, Charles
"A Meckel's diverticulum is frequently suspected, often sought, and rarely found."

Aphorism of Moynihan
"A gallstone is a tombstone to the memory of the organism within it."

Aphorism of Moynihan - 2
"The stomach is the mother of the GIT. With any disease of the tract, like a mother weeps, so is there vomiting."

Arnold Chiari malformation
Herniation of Clar tonsils thro foramen magnum - lower CN palsies+Clar limb signs+UMN signs in legs

Atkins-Wolff operation
Microdochectomy - done for persistent nipple discharge from 1 or few ducts.

Bakamgian flap
Deltopectoral flap - for repair of cheek defects like in Ca cheek - operated, or in cancrum oris.

Band of Ladd
In arrested rotation of midgut & subsequent volvulus neonatorum - peritoneal band from the caecum which is on left side to right side - obstructs the 2nd part of duodenum.

Barbeau's disease
Oculo-pharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

Barnard's approach
Extra-serous approach - extraperitoneal or extra pleural - used esp to drain abscess - avoids contamination of the cavity.

Barron's banding
For hemorrhoids

Bartter's syndrome
JG cell hyperplasia with very high Plasma Renin activity (PRA) + hypokalemia + 2ndary hyperaldosteronism + short stature.

Beaver's sign
Upward movement of umbilicus on attempted neck raise / SLR - seen with weakness of the lower AAW muscles.

Becker's dystrophy
Similar to Duchenne's - milder - onset late teens - limb weakness appears much later - may survive up to middle age and beyond.

Behr's syndrome
Familial spastic paraplegia with or without optic atrophy.

Berger's disease
IgA nephropathy

Besnier's prurigo
Atopic dermatitis

Bickerstaff migraine
Basilar migraine - occurs in younger individuals - involves mostly brainstem signs in the aura & headache - diplopia, dysarthria, deafness, blindness, bilateral parasthesias, bilateral paresis, etc.

Billewicz scale
Symptom index scale for hypothyroidism

Bishop - Koop operation
For meconium ileus - ileocolostomy

Boari's flap operation
For repair of lower end of ureter in case of fibrosis, surgical excision, or accidental damage - bladder wall fashioned into a tube like extension.

Bockus maneuver
For palpation of spleen - ask patient to jump up & down 8-10 times then palpate in right lateral position - previously non-palpable spleen may be felt.

Boerema - Crile operation
For portal hypertension - trans-thoracic ligation of bleeding varices

Boerhaave's syndrome
Full thickness post emetic tears in esophagus - lead to mediastinitis, hemothorax, cardio-respiratory embarrassment.

Bourneville's disease
Tuberous sclerosis

Broca's area
Posterior part of the 3rd frontal gyrus of the dominant lobe

Brodie's abscess
One form of chronic osteomyelitis

Brodie's tumor
Cystosarcoma phyllodes

Buerger's disease
Thrombo-angitis obliterans (TAO) - distal symmetrical panvasculitis of medium & small blood vessels.

Burnhart's syndrome
Meralgia parasthetica - entrapment of the femoral N at the inguinal ligament - pain & parasthesia on antero-lateral aspect of thigh.

Bushke - Lowenstein tumor
Giant condyloma acuminatum - locally invasive & may recur after resection - bt has no malignant cells.

Cabana's lymph node
Superomedial group of superficial inguinal lymph nodes - sentinel for glans - inguinal dissection in Ca penis only if these are positive.

Caplan's syndrome
Rheumatoid arthritis + coal worker's pneumoconiosis / PMF

Carnett's test
To diff betn abdominal wall tenderness & intra-abd tenderness. Patient asked to sit half-way up, tenderness disappears in intra-abd cause. AAW tenderness in sprain, myositis, nerve entrapment.

Casal's necklace
In pellagra - around neck - rash only in sun exposed areas.

Celsius features of inflammation
Dolor (pain), Rubor (redness), Calor (raised local temperature), Tumor (swelling), Functio laesa (loss of function)

Charcot's triad
For cerebellar involvement - dysarthria + nystagmus + intention tremors

Charcot's triad
Pain + Jaundice + Fever with rigors - for acute cholangitis

Childs - Phillip's plication
Transmesenteric plication - modification of Noble's plication operation for multiple adhesions.

Christian Barnard
1st cardiac transplant

Chvostek's sign
For 'latent' tetany - spasm of facial muscles on tapping branches of facial N as they leave the parotid gland.

CJD - Creutzfeldt - Jacob disease
Commonly presents with psychiatric (severe depression) & sensory (dys/paresthesias) symptoms, later develops dementia, FNDs (especially cerebellar), invol movts (esp myoclonus) & finally akinetic mutism.

CJD - familial form
Occurs with mutation at the polymorphic codon 129 of the PrP gene - affects younger age groups, & has a longer course than the sporadic form of the disease.

CJD - variant form
Cause of British beef scandal - infection occurred in the 1980's - affects younger individuals, more sensory symptoms, longer course of disease, upgaze palsy, absence of typical periodic EEG changes.

Conn's syndrome
Primary hyperaldosteronism

Courian Sax grading
For clubbing - suspected, slight, average, severe

Cowden's syndrome
Syndrome of multiple hamartomas

Cruveilhier-Baumgarten syndrome
Venous hum at umbilicus with dilated Vv on AAW.

Cullen's sign
Discoloration of umbilical area d.t. hemoperitoneum - ruptured ectopic, trauma, acute h'gic pancreatitis.

Curling's ulcer
Stress ulcer in stomach - in response to severe burns.

Cushing's response
In raised ICT - Hypertension + Bradycardia + Bradypnea

Cushing's syndrome
Obesity is associated with abdominal striae (d.t. protein catabolic state) & hirsutism (d.t. associated sex hormone excess).

Cushing's ulcer
Stress ulcer in stomach - in response to major CNS trauma

Dance's sign
Emptiness in the RIF - seen in ileo-colic intussusception

Darier's sign
Rub skin with blunt end of a pen - palpable wheal develops in 1-2 min - seen in systemic mastocytosis proliferation of mast cells with excess histamine release.

Delorme's operation
For rectal prolapse - plication of musculature to form a ring with excision & repair of redundant mucosa

Dennis Browne urethroplasty
Used in hypospadias - as 2nd stage surgery after excision of the chordee done about 2-3 months before.

Diamond's syndrome
Pre-tibial myxedema + Exophthalmos + Clubbing - seen in thyrotoxicosis - clubbing is called thyroid acropachy.

Dietl's crisis
Intermittent hydronephrosis with diuretic spells - d.t. excessively mobile kidney which causes intermittent kinking of the ureter - with intermittent release of the obstruction.

DiGeorge syndrome
Interrupted aortic arch, Fallot's, Truncus arteriosus + Thymic hypoplasia / aplasia (with immune dysfunction) + Parathyroid hypoplasia / aplasia + ear abnormalities

Dowden incision
For appendicectomy - lateral incision extending on both sides of McBurney's point

Dressler's quadrangle
Margins for inguinal block dissection - Superiorly inguinal ligament, laterally down from ASIS for 20 cm, medially down from pubic tubercle for 15 cm, inferiorly joining inferior ends of these 2 lines.

Dressler's syndrome
Post - AMI pericarditis - causes a localised pericarditis with friction rub - develops 3-4 days after the AMI - resolves spontaneously.

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Meryon's disease - X-linked recessive - manifests in early teens - patients usually die by age 20.

Dupuytren's hydrocele
Hydrocele - en - bisac - one part of the sac is in the scrotum while the other is in the canal, in the abdomen, etc.

Eberth's bacillus
Salmonella typhi

EDS Type I
EDS - Gravis type - with severe joint hypermobility, skin laxity, bruising, & bleeding manifestations.

EDS - Mitis type milder

Benign familial joint hypermobility

Aortic - ecchymotic form

Cutis laxa; Menke's steely hair syndrome; associated with copper metabolism disturbance

Ocular form

Arthrochalosis congenita multiplex

Periodontal form

Ellis van Crevald syndrome
Chondro-ectodermal dysplasia - Chondrodysplasia + ectodermal dysplasia + polydactyly + congenital heart disease.

Emery-Dreifuss dystrophy
X-linked dystrophy - deficiency of emerin - early onset contractures of Achille's tendon, elbows, humeral & peroneal muscle weakness and contractures, and serious cardiac conduction defects.

Erb Duchenne palsy
C5,6 affected - upper cord lesion - hand cannot be flexed & pronated - lies limp by the side - "porter's tip" position, sensory loss over lateral side of UL & thumb & index finger.

Erb's march of motor paralysis
In progressive cord compression - especially extra-dural / medullary - 1st involves ipsilateral UL, then ipsi LL, then contra-lateral LL, then contra-lateral UL - d.t. arrangements of fibers in the cortico-spinal tracts - antero-laterally arranged.

Fanconi Syndrome
Multiple defects in proximal tubule - glycosuria, AA-uria, Phosphaturia, Uricosuria

Felty's syndrome
Splenomegaly + neutropenia (pancytopenia with immune deficit) + rheumatoid arthritis

Ferriman - Gallway score
For hirsutism - assesses hair growth at nine specific androgen dependent sites - each gets score 0(no terminal hair) to 4 (frankly virile) (min 4 , max 36) - >8 score = hirsutism.

Fishman's grading
For clubbing - according to angle between nail & nail bed

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
Perihepatitis d.t. gonococcal infection - asso with P.I.D.

Foster Kennedy syndrome
With frontal lobe lesion - optic atrophy in ipsilateral eye with papilledema in opposite eye.

Fowler Stephen's operation
For undescended testis - if cord cannot be lengthened d.t. testicular A stretching - A. ligated & testis brought down - collateral supply from A to vas & cremasteric A will suffice.

Fraenkel's nodules
Formed by endothelial proliferation + perivascular reaction --- seen in Rickettsial infection - these org multiply in the capillary endothelial cells - intracellular parasites.

Freidrich's ataxia
Cardiomyopathy, conduction defects + Ataxia + dysarthria + degeneration of dorsal column tracts

Friedreich's ataxia
Combined spino-cerebellar degeneration with concomitant peripheral neuropathy, with myocardial degeneration with progressive myocardial fibrosis.

Frohlich's syndrome
Obesity + lethargy + genital hypoplasia + amenorrhea - without abdominal striae or hirsutism (difference from Cushing's syndrome).

Gable incision
Oblique for liver, adrenal, & pancreas

Gaenslen's operation
Done for sacro-iliac subluxation.

Gerstmann's syndrome
Lesion of the dominant parietal lobe - ALF - Agraphia, Acalculia, Left-right disorientation, Finger agnosia

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
Complex tics with coprolalia & copropraxia - starts in childhood - persists into adulthood - treated with DA antagonists / anti-psychotics.

Glasgow Coma Scale
Devised by Jaenett & Teasdale in 1974.

Gottren's sign
In polymyositis & dermatomyositis - heliotrope (lilac colored) discoloration of the knuckles.

Hackett's grading
For splenomegaly

Hadfield's operation
Cone excision of all major ducts - done for persistent nipple discharge from all or many ducts. Defect closed by purse-string sutures.

Hartmann's operation
Excision of affected bowel + proximal colostomy + distal end closed & kept in situ.

Heberden's syndrome
Angina pectoris

Henoch Schonlein purpura
Autoimmune IgA mediated condition - common in children - classic triad of rash (infex) + abdominal pain / renal involvement + arthritis - may cause renal failure.

Henry's incision
Midline infra-umbilical

Hippocrates' method
For reduction of anterior dislocation of shoulder - surgeon applies traction with hands & counter-traction with foot in the axilla.

Hippocrates' nails

Hippocrates' sign
Succussion splash.

Hippocrates tumour
Malignant melanoma

Hippocratic facies
In peritonitis - d.t. shock.

Holstein Lewis syndrome
Radial N palsy 2ndary to # shaft of humerus.

Holt Oram syndrome
ASD + Skeletal defects of UL + clavicle dysgenesis

Horner's syndrome
Miosis + Partial ptosis + Anhydrosis - seen d.t. disturbance of the sympathetic supply to eye anywhere in its course.

Horton's headache
Cluster headaches - common in adult males - occur in clusters - unilateral, associated with lacrimation, nasal stuffiness - ppted by stress, alcohol, smoking, nitrates.

Jaccoud's arthritis
Arthritis of rheumatic fever - form which involves the distal smaller joints & leaves residual scarring

Jack - knife position
Prone, with hips flexed over a break in the table - used for rectal surgery & lumbar laminectomy.

Jackson's staging
For Ca penis - see notes.

Job's syndrome
Hypereosinophilic syndrome - with atopic dermatitis, high IgE levels, recurrent pyodermas, & decreased chemotaxis of mononuclear cells.

Kallmann's syndrome
Congenital def of GnRH with anosmia. Leads to hypogonadotrophic hygonadism.

Kantor's string sign
On small bowel enema in Crohn's disease at the ileum.

Kartagener's syndrome
Dextrocardia + situs inversus + sinusitis + bronchiectasis + sterility (ciliary dysfunction)

Katayama disease
Serum-sickness like illness caused in acute schistosomiasis when the adult worms start producing eggs - fever, Lnpathy, urticaria, arthritis,edema.

Kawasaki disease
Mucocutaneous LN syndrome - High fever + skin/mucous membrane affection + Extremity involvement + Rash + conjunctivitis + cervical Lnpathy --- acute, self limiting - like collagen disease - in children

Kernohan's notch
In head injury - cause of 2ndary brain injury - space occupying effect causes herniation - opposite cerebral peduncle pressed against the tentorium - pyramidal tract affection on the same side of the body.

Killian's dehiscence
Protrusion of pharyngeal mucosa between thyropharyngeus & cricopharyngeus.

Killip's grading
For cardiac pump failure - 4 groups - prognosis (mortality) corresponds to this clinical staging especially in AMI.

Klumke Dejerine palsy
C8, T1 affected - lower cord lesion - intrinsic hand muscle weakness & wasting, sensory loss over inner side, Horner's syndrome.

Incision, Vein (thyroid), Kocherisation, Kocher's test (for thyroid - tracheomalacia), Forceps, Method for reduction of anterior dislocation of shoulder, lateral approach to the elbow - in orthopaedic surgery.

Kock's procedure
Ileostomy with continent intra-abdominal pouch

Korsakoff's psychosis
Commonly follows Wernicke's encephalopathy - severe amnesia is the main feature, with confabulation - amnesia may be antegrade or retrograde.

1st person to use an esophagoscope

Kussmaul's breathing
Acidotic breathing - rapid deep breathing

Kussmaul's sign
Paradoxical rise in JVP on inspiration - seen in pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, COPDs

Laennec's cirrhosis
Alcoholic cirrhosis

Lahaut's operation
Abdominal operation for rectal prolapse - passed through rectus sheath

Lanz's incision
Transverse right sided in iliac region - for appendix & caecum - more cosmetic - may be used in females

Lasegue's sign
For disc prolapse - pain on passive raising of the straight leg (SLR)

Laurence Moon Biedl syndrome
Variable congenital heart defects + retinitis pigmentosa + polydactyly + obesity + microcephaly + MR

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
X linked recessive defect of HGPRTase deficiency - gout asso. with CNS changes like choreoathetosis, spasticity, mental deficit, and compulsive self mutilation.

Lhermitte's sign
On neck flexion - electric shock like sensations in the dermatome of affected segment part of spinal cord - seen in multiple sclerosis / radiation myelopathy.

Li Fraumeni syndrome
Hereditary cancer syndrome - deletion of p53 - also called SBLA - Sarcoma, Breast, Brain, Lung, Larynx, Leukemia, Adrenal tumor syndrome.

Little disease
Cerebral palsy

Looser's lines
Seen in rachitic bones - radioluscent transverse lines in the XR, usually on the concave side of the bone not extending to the opposite cortex. Most commonly seen in adult osteomalacia, & renal osteodystrophy.

Lowibond's angle
Angle between nail & nail bed - usually 168 degrees - obliterated in clubbing

Lyme disease - 3 stages
Early localised (erythema at bite site), early dissem (flu, cardiac - blocks, neurological - meningism, enceph), late persistent (arthritis, chronic neurological, cutaneous)

Lynch syndrome 1
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal Ca (HNPCC) - autosomal dominant inheritance - multiple primaries - rt sided - also Ca uterus & ovary are common.

Mafucci's syndrome
Multiple enchondromatosis (Ollier's disease) + multiple soft tissue haemangiomas - may be cause of clubbing.

Mallory-Weiss syndrome
Partial thickness esophageal post emetic tears - lead to upper GI bleed & hematemesis

Martorell's sign
"Tree root" sign on XR - angiography in vascular occlusion d.t. lymphatics.

McArthur's incision
Grid Iron type of incision.

McGregor's flap
Forehead flap - based on superficial temporal A.

Meckel's diverticulum
Partial persistence of the omphalo-mesenteric duct at its junction with the ileum.

Meig's syndrome
Ascites, pleural effusion asso with ovarian fibroma.

Menetriere's disease
Cystic glandular hyperplasia of stomach mucosa - leads to protein losing enteropathy & hematemesis.

Millin - Walker's operation
For portal hypertension - trans - thoracic porta-systemic disconnection - by transection & reanastomosis of esophagus.

Mitchell's technique
Injection treatment for piles

Mondor's disease
Thrombophlebitis of superficial veins of breast and chest wall, may involve upper limb.

Morgan - Milligan operation
For hemorrhoids - "open" technique of hemorrhoidectomy

Morson's classification
For intestinal polyps - broad groups are - (1) Hamartomatous, (2) Metaplastic, (3) Inflammatory, (4) Neoplastic - benign & malignant.

Murphy's triad
Pain + Vomiting + Fever - for acute appendicitis

Naunyn's sign
Same as Murphy's sign - Naunyn described it 13 yrs before Murphy did.

Nelson's syndrome
Hyperpigmentation with pituitary tumor. Occurs d.t. high ACTH d.t. treatment of pituitary Cushing's with bilateral adrenalectomy.

Nesbitt's operation
To treat Peyronie's disease

Noble's plication operation
For multiple adhesions

Noonan's syndrome
Pulmonary valve dysplasia or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy + Cryptorchidism + pectus excavatum + webbed neck

Nurse's syndrome
Mesenteric adenitis occurring in teenage girls - attacks of central abdominal pain with circum oral pallor.

Ollier's disease
Multiple enchondromatosis

Ombredanne's operation
For undescended testis - testis brought down into scrotum & fixed by inserting it across septum into other hemi-scrotum.

Ong's operation
For portal hypertension - trans-abdominal ligation of bleeding varices

Ormond's disease
Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Osler Weber Rendu disease
Hereditary Hemorrhagic telangiectasia

Osler's maneuvre
To detect pseudoHT - caused d.t. calcification of the Aa - Feel for the radial A with cuff pressure >SBP - if palpable - means the A is calcified & gives false high BP.

Osler's nodes
Tender nodules formed in the pulps of fingers & in the thenar & hypothenar eminences - seen in IE

P. Venugopal
1st cardiac transplant in India - at AIIMS

Paget - Schroetter's syndrome
Effort - vein thrombosis - see notes on thoracic outlet syndrome.

Parinaud's syndrome
Loss of vertical gaze associated with refractory nystagmus on convergence + pseudo - Argyll Robertson pupils present - causes - pinealoma, MS, vascular lesions.

Park's operation
Restorative procto-colectomy with ileo-anal pouch

Paul - Mikulicz operation
Resection of affected intestine + both ends brought out side by side flush together. Subsequent closure of stoma by crushing septum in between the 2 ends & closing roof of stoma.

Peyronie's disease
Corpora cavernosa involved - multiple fibrotic plaques - deformed penis - treated by Nesbitt's operation - sutures put in opposite side of contractures to straighten the penis.

Pfannelstiel's incision
Transverse infra-umbilical - for pelvic organs.

Pick's disease
Ascites d.t. constrictive pericarditis

Polya gastrectomy
Billroth II gastrectomy

Post coital test - other names
Sim's test, Huhner's test. Modification - Miller Kurzrok test - cervical mucus & sperms taken onto slide & penetration tested under microscope.

Pott's fracture
Ankle # - bimalleolar type

Pott's puffy tumour
Osteomyelitis of the skull bones - commonly after an open # - causes an inflammatory of the scalp.

Pott's spine
TB spine - commonly presents as paraplegia - destroys the body AND IV discs (which are spared in 2ndaries to spine) - causes vertebral body collapse & paravertebral abscess - bird nest sign on AP XR.

Prehn's sign
In torsion testis - aggravation of the pain on elevating the testis - differentiates it from acute epididymo-orchitis.

Prinzmetal's angina
Angina at rest or occurring in specific patterns - 'start-up' angina, 'decubitus' angina, 'nocturnal' angina

Pseudo Meig's syndrome
Ascites, pleural effusion asso with uterine fibroid.

Ramsay - Hunt syndrome
Herpes zoster oticus (vesicles in the canal) + LMN facial palsy + Regional adenopathy + Vertigo + anesthesia over anterior 2/3 of the corresponding hemitongue.

Raynaud's pentad
Charcot's triad (pain + fever + jaundice) + CNS excitatory / depressive effects + septic shock - from operating on an infected biliary system.

Reiter's syndrome
Conjunctivitis + Urethritis + Arthritis + Oral ulcers + Periarteritis - associated with HLA B27.

Riley Day syndrome
Familial dysautonomia syndrome - manifests in babies.

Ripstein's operation
Abdominal operation for rectal prolapse - attached to sacral promontory by Teflon sling

Risser's sign
XR sign - ossification of iliac apophysis - used as a measure of skeletal maturity.

Robson's staging

Ross syndrome
Tonic pupils with altered knee jerks, with hypohidrosis

Roussy Levy syndrome
Mild ataxia + pes cavus + arreflexia + peroneal muscle atrophy + thickened nerves (in some)

Rovsing's operation
For polycystic kidney disease - "de-capping" of cysts - to relieve pressure atrophy of renal parenchyma & reduce discomfort.

Rutherford Morrison's pouch
Right hepatorenal pouch - most dependent part of peritoneal cavity in supine position.

Saint's triad
Chronic cholecystitis (d.t. GB stones), Diverticulitis, Hiatus hernia - all present with dyspepsia.

Schober's test
For lumbar flexion testing - keep 2 fingers over the spine, one 5 cm below a point on the spine at level of the dimple, & other 10 cm above it - ask patient to bend forwards - if length between fingers increases

Shiyonoya's criteria
For diagnosis of T.A.O. - Buerger's disease.

Silber Kelly operation
For undescended testis - the cord is lengthened after ligating testicular A with micro-vascular anastomosis with the inferior epigastric A.

Singer's test
Alkali denaturation test to detect foetal Hb.

Sipple's syndrome
Hereditary cancer syndrome - with association of pheochromocytoma & medullary Ca thyroid - same as MEN type 2a

Sjaastad's syndrome
Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania - like cluster headches - except more common in females - responds to indomethacin treatment.

Somogyi phenomenon - DM
Post - hypoglycemic - hyperglycemia occurs in early morning after bout of hypoglycemia at about 3 a.m. Treatment - decrease the bed-time insulin dose.

Sprengel's shoulder
Undescended / Elevated scapula.

Stauffer's syndrome
Reversible hepatic cellular dysfunction in RCC

Steele Richardson Olszewski S
Progressive supranuclear palsy - loss of vertical & later horizontal gaze which is associated with extrapyramidal signs, neck rigidity & dementia. Reflex eye movements on head movements + (supra nuc)

Stein Levinthal syndrome
PCOD --- Amenorrhoea + Sterility + Hirsutism + Obesity (ASHO) --- causes secondary amenorrhea in a young woman - treated with Clomiphene --- 50-100 mg for 1st 5 days of month for 6 months.

Sundown syndrome
Evening confusion followed by agitation - seen in late stages of Parkinsonism - the fluctuating stage.

Suzzmann's sign
In coarctation of aorta - bruits heard over the back - d.t. opening up of the periscapular anastomosis, & d.t. increased blood flow through the IC Aa.

Syme's amputation
Supramalleolar amputation of foot - Heel pad rotated anteriorly over sawn off ends of tibia & fibula.

Tanner's operation
For portal hypertension - trans - abdominal porta-systemic disconnection - by transection & reanastomosis of proximal part of stomach.

Tanyol's sign
Umbilicus position in relation to xiphisternum & pubic symphysis - to differentiate between ascites & pelvic lump e.g. ovarian cyst.

Tobia's syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome d.t. Pancoast tumor

Todd's palsy
Post-ictal paralysis - D/D for a hemorrhagic stroke

Tolosa Hunt syndrome
Superior orbital fissure syndrome - painful lesins of the V1, III, IV, VI CN.

Trendelenburg's operation
For varicose veins - sapheno-femoral disconnection with flush ligation of the saphenous stump on the femoral V.

Trendelenburg's operation - 2
For pulmonary embolism - pulmonary embolectomy

Trendelenburg's position
Supine + head low position - facilitates pelvic surgery by causing intestines to gravitate upwards.

Trendelenburg's test
In varicose veins - 2 parts - 1st for leg perforators, 2nd for sapheno-femoral junction

Troisier's sign
Isolated enlargement of Virchow's nodes - seen in late stages of abdominal & pelvic malignancies.

Trousseau's sign
Migratory throbophlebitis - seen commonly with advanced intra-abdominal malignancies. Observed by Trousseau in himself d.t. his Ca stomach d.t. which he died.

Trousseau's sign - tetany
For 'latent' tetany - carpopedal spasm on occluding arm blood supply with BP cuff inflated.

Van Nuys classification
Pathological classification for DCIS - based on nuclear grading and presence or absence of necrosis (comedo pattern).

Van Nuys scoring
For prognosis in DCIS treated with excision - uses the Van Nuys classification, tumor size, and the width of the margin. Score can be 3,4 (minimal risk), 5,6,7 (intermed risk) or 8,9 (high risk).

VATER syndrome
VSD, Vertebral anomalies + Anal atresia + Tracheo-Esophageal fistula + Radial anomalies, Renal anomalies

Venus' dimple
On the buttocks - at the level of the posterior superior iliac spine - the sacro-iliac joints lie just below it.

Virchow's nodes
Left supraclavicular nodes - enlarged in Troisier's sign

Virchow's triad
To explain causes of coagulation - 1) Changes in vessel wall 2) Changes in blood constituents 3) Changes in flow of blood.

Volkmann's contracture - causes
Compartment syndrome, Arterial damage, Tight POP cast, prolonged tourniquet application, hyperflexion.

Von Economo's disease
Encephalitis lethargica - post influenzal encephalitis - one of the D/D's for Parkinsonism.

Von Recklinghausen's disease
Neurofibromatosis, osteitis fibrosa cystica

Warren's operation
For portal hypertension - devascularization of stomach varices - ligation of left gastric vein.

Warren's operation - 2
For portal hypertension - distal spleno-renal shunt

Wayne index
Symptom index for hyperthyroidism

Well's operation
Abdominal operation for rectal prolapse - attached to sacrum by polyvinyl sponge

Werner Zoege von Manteuffel
First to advocate use of sterilised rubber gloves for surgery in 1897. Till then surgeons mostly operated with bare hands !!!

Werner's syndrome
Multiple endocrine neoplasia - type 1

Wernicke's area
Posterior part of the 1st temporal gyrus of the dominant lobe

Wernicke's encephalopathy
Ataxia + ophthalmoplegia + confusion - may progress to Korsakoff's psychosis - treated as medical emergency with 50-100 mg Thiamine IV & only then other glucose infusions.

Whipple's disease
Rare disease with diarrhea, arthralgia, CNS signs, and skin pigmentation. Caused by intestinal infection by Trophyrema whipelli - has multisystemic manifestations - prolonged treatment with Tetra - 1 year or more.

Whipple's operation
Partial pancreatectomy with duodenectomy.

Whipple's triad
Diagnostic criteria for Insulinoma - Attacks in fasting or exercising state, BSL

Wilkie's syndrome
SMA syndrome - occlusion - leads to MVA or mesenteric ischemia - pain in abdomen after meals.

William Osler
First described typhoid fever in 1892

William's syndrome
Supravalvular AS + peripheral pulmonary stenosis + 'elfin' facies + hoarse voice + mental deficiency

Winwarter - Buerger disease
Cerebral form of T.A.O.

Zenker's diverticulum
Pharyngeal pouch

Zieman's test
For hernia - the 3 finger test - ring finger over saphenous opening, middle finger over the superficial ring & index over the deep ring - patient asked to cough.

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