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The Most Common List Version 1.0

Author: Guest, Posted on Saturday, September 13 @ 18:12:15 IST by RxPG  

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List of most common terms and facts for pre pg entrance exams. Version 1.0

-suture is over and over.
-cause of hypercalcemia in a surgical patient is primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism and metastatic bone disease.
-cause of hypermagnesiumemia secondary to renal failure.
-NSAID that decreases platelet function is aspirin.
-cause of hypovolemic shock is hemorrhage.
-toe problem is ingrown toe nails.
-cause of death in children and adults less than 35 years of age is trauma.
-cause of immediate death after an MVA or fall from height is aortic rupture.
-injury to the thoracic cage is a rib fracture.
-hernia in both sexes and all age groups is bilateral inguinal hernia.
-causes of true aneurysm are acquired atherosclerosis, congenital fibromuscular dysplasia (Marfans)
-cause of spontaneous, bloody unilateral nipple discharge is intraductal papilloma.
-variety of thyroid carcinoma is papillary.
-cause of hypercalcemia is hyperparathyroidism
-cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension is schistosomiasis.
-appliance for compression of bleeding esophageal varices ais the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube.
-cause of secondary hypersplenism is portal hypertension.
-type of primary liver cancer is hepatoma.
-benign liver tumor is a hemangioma
-indication for splenectomy is splenic injury.
-cause of spontaneous splenic rupture is malaria (next most common is mononucleosis).
-hemolytic anemia to respond to splenectomy is congenital hereditary spherocytosis.
-indication for aortic/bifemoral bypass graft is for bilateral iliac obstruction
-cause of renovascular hypertension in children is fibromuscular dysplasia.
-site of embolic occlusion is the femoral artery.
-malignant tumor in the US is skin cancer.
-benign type of melanoma is superficial lentigo malignant melanoma
-single agent treatment of melanoma is DTIC
-drugs for PCA are morphine sulfate and meperidine.
-variant of Hodgkins disease is nodular sclerosing
The variant of Hodgkins Disease with the best prognosis is lymphocyte predominant
The variant of Hodgkins Diease with the worst prognosis is lymphocyte depleted.


-cause of acute prostatitis is E. coli.
-reason to get treatment for BPH is symptomatic relief.
-location for prostate CA is in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland.
-(and best) diagnostic imaging technique for prostate CA is TRUS
-renal anomaly is horseshoe kidney.
-renal inflammatory disorder is pyelonephritis
-renal tumor is renal cell carcinoma
-source of renal neoplasm is metastasis.
-cause of penetrating bladder injuries are GSW, stabbing, and possibly MVAs
-surgery performed on males is circumcision
-solid malignancy in males age 18-35 is testicular cancer.
-cause of erectile dysfunction is vasogenic


-complication of spinal anesthesia is posture-related headache one day after anesthesia, probably secondary to CSF leakage.
-indication for nasogastric tube placement is gastric decompression


-motility disorder of the esophagus is achalasia
-site of peptic ulcer disease is the first part of the duodenum
-reason for recurrent post-operative ulcer disease is inadequate vagotomy.
-cause of surgical abdomen is acute appendicitis.
-causes of appendix obstruction in the young is mesenteric lymphadenitis or lymphoid hyperplasia
-causes of appendix obstruction in older patients is fecolith and foreign body.
-tumor of the appendix is carcinoid.
-benign tumor of the small bowel is leiomyoma.
-primary tumor of the small bowel adenocarcinoma.
-malignant tumors of the small bowel is adenocarcinoma, carcinoid, and lymphoma.
-small bowel malignancy of children is lymphoma.
-surgical condition of the small bowel is obstruction secondary to adhesions
-anaerobe in the colon is Bacteriodes fragilis
-site for metastases from the colon is the liver.
-location of colonic obstruction is the sigmoid colon.
-cause of colonic obstruction is adenocarcinoma.
-site of vovulus is the sigmoid colon.
-site of bile duct carcinoma is the bifurcation of the common hepatic ducts.
-causes of acute pancreatitis are alcohol consumption and biliary calculi.
-causes of death in a patient with pancreatitis are respiratory distress, cardiovascular collapse, coagulopathy and hemorrhage.
-local complications of acute pancreatitis are paralytic ileus, sterile peripancreatic fluid collection, and pancreatic abcess.
-site of pancreatic cancer is the head of the pancreas


-refractive surgery is radial keratotomy.
-type of glaucoma is chronic open-angle glaucoma.
-glaucoma-related surgical procedure is trabeculectomy.
-cause of blindness in the developed world is proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
-etiology of visual loss in patients with diabetes mellitus is macular edema.
-cause of eye malposition is lagopthalmos secondary to eyelid retraction, proptosis, and CN VII palsy.
-cause of proptosis in children is periocular infection
-cause of proptosis in adults is Grave's Disease.
-cause of red eye is conjunctivitis.
-cause of ocular venous occlusion is glaucoma.
-tissue transplant is corneal
-reason for corneal treatment: pseudophakic bullous keratopathy


-location of hip fracture is at the femoral neck and intertrochanter.
-sprained ligament is the anterior talofibular ligament.
-foci of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis are the metaphases of long bones secondary to turbulent flow.
-variety of osteoporosis is the involutional type, often seen in post-menopausal women.
-musculoskeletal morbidity in the elderly is osteoarthritis.
The most moveable joint is the genohumoral joint.
The strongest bone segment is the femoral shaft.


-cause of otitis externa pseudomonas
-benign lesion of the ear is actinic keratosis
-congenital external ear malformation is lop ear (absence of cartilage).
-causative organisms of otitis media are H. influenzae and Strep. pneumoniae.
-cause of trauma to the middle ear is foreign object insertion.
-tumor is benign acoustic neuroma.
-cause of vertigo is vestibular neuritis.
-site of epistaxis is Kiesselbach's plexus (in nasal septum).
-location of epistaxis in children is anterior, often traumatic.
-location of epistaxis in adults is posterior, secondary to system causes such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.
-tumor of the paranasal sinuses is osteoma
-infectious disease in humans is acute viral rhinitis
-non-infectious cause of rhinitis is allergic (about 20% of population).
-medical cause of rhinitis is decongestant abuse
-orbital infection is acute ethmoidal sinusitis
-fungal infection of the oral cavity is moniliasis.
-benign neoplasm of the oral cavity and pharynx is squamous papilloma.
-malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity and pharyn is squamous cell carcinoma.
-benign neoplasm of the parotid gland in children is hemangioma
-malignant neoplasm of the parotid gland is mucoepidermoid carcinoma
-malignant neoplasm of salivary glands (except parotid) is adenocystic carcinoma.
-cause of infant stridor is laryngomalacia
-inflammatory condition of the larynx in adults is acute laryngitis.
-benign tumor of the larynx in children is squamous papilloma
-malignant tumor of the larynx is squamous cell carcinoma
-etiologies of neck masses in children are congenital and inflammatory.
-etiology of neck masses in adults is neoplasm.
-benign neck tumors are lipoma and neurogenic tumors (schwannoma, neurofibroma).
-malignant lateral neck masses in children are lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.
The cricoarytenoid muscles are the only ones that ABduct the vocal cords.

If you think I have helped you in your preparation by sharing this painstakingly compiled list then please contribute your additions below as comments to add to this list for the benefit of other users and me.


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