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Terms used in Psychopathology

Author: Guest, Posted on Friday, October 10 @ 17:52:36 IST by RxPG  

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Psychiatry

Affect :feeling or emotional tone (as in muscular tone )

-Incongrous affect-extremes of emotion which are inappropriate in the particular context.

-Labile affect-Rapid and extreme changes in mood .

-Blunted affect-Reduction in normal variation in emotion.


Apathy: total loss of emotion

Ambitendous :when apatient alternates between opposite movements ,eg.putting out the arm to shake hands then withdrawing it,extending it,extending it again and so on.

Clouding of Consiusness: Impairement of consiousness on a continuum between full alertness and coma .Patients may be drowsy or agitated ,associated with a deteroration in thinking ,attention,perception and memory.

Compulsions :repetitive and seemingly purposeless behavior ,such as checking ,counting or cleaning.May include extensive rituals which can become incapacitating .

Delusions: A belief held by the patient which is unshakable in spite of overwhelming evidence to the contrary and is not in keeping with there social and cultural backgrounds .

-Autochthonous delusion(primary delusion)-A delusion arising suddenly and with full conviction without any preceding mental event.

-Delusional memories -Memories reinterpreted in a delusional way in the light of new morbid experiences.

-Delusional mood-A primary experience of mood change anxiety ,foreboding ,sense of something ,sinister happening without any obvious reason for such a feeling .

-Delusional perception-A normal percept followed by a sudden delusional idea as in a primary delusion.

-Delusions of reference-Delsional interpretation of innocuous events,remarks,etc attributing personal significance to them.

-Fregoli Delusion(named after an Italian actor)-patient identifies various different people as a single often familiar person believing he or she to be capable of formidable disguises.

-Capgras Delusion-The delusional idea that familiar people have been replaced by doubles.

-Cotards Syndrome-Exterme form of nihilistic delusion in which the individual feels that they are dead.

-Nihilistic delusions -Delusions of the non existence of objects or people

-Persecutory delusions-delusions of being persecuted by individuals or organisations,etc.

-Secondary delusions-Delusional ideas which have arisen from pathological experience and can be understood therfore to be secondary to them.

depersonalization : A distressing feeling in which one's body feels unreal

Derealisation:Feeling as if the world appears to be unreal(often described as like looking at a film)

Echo de la Pensee(GEDANKENLAUTWERDEN):voices repeating the patients thoughts .

Echopraxia:The imitation of interviewer's movements automatically,even when asked not to do so.

Eidetic imagery:Visual images of such intensity it has a photographic quality.

Flight of Ideas :Topics ,patients speech change rapidly before completion but with comprehensible links between topics .

Hallucinations :A percept experienced as being outside one's mind .Can occur in any modality ,but there is no external corollary providing sense data for the percept.

-Autoscopic Hallucinations-experience of seeing one's own body in external space.

-Elementary Hallucinations-simple percepts such as noice or flashes of light.

-Extra campine visual hallucinations-hallucinations experienced as outside the feild of vision.

-Hynogogic hallucinations-hallucinations experienced on falling asleep,can occur in healthy people.

-Hypnopompic hallucinations-experienced during awakening

-somatic hallucinations-hallucinatory sensations felt in the external body or internal body(viscera)

-Third person Auditory hallucinations-voices heard talking about the patient referring to him in the third person (he or she ,or by name)

Illusions :misinterpretation of sense data.A coat on a coat stand appearing in dim light to be a man standing ,not pathological but more likely to occur with for example in delerium

Imagery:experienced within the mind and without the sense of reality of a perception .Can be controlled by an effort.

Loosening of associations:Fragmented structure to thinking .Leaves the listener with a feeling of bewilderment that cannot be clarified by further enquiry.

Mannerisms:Repeated movement appearing to have functional significance.

Neologisms-Words or phrases invented by the patient to describe his morbid experience.

Negativism :refers to movement ,when the patients do the opposite from what is asked and actively resist efforts to persuade to comply.




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