Affect :feeling or emotional tone (as in muscular tone )
-Incongrous affect-extremes of emotion which are inappropriate in the particular context.
-Labile affect-Rapid and extreme changes in mood .
-Blunted affect-Reduction in normal variation in emotion.
Apathy: total loss of emotion
Ambitendous :when apatient alternates between opposite movements ,eg.putting out the arm to shake hands then withdrawing it,extending it,extending it again and so on.
Clouding of Consiusness: Impairement of consiousness on a continuum between full alertness and coma .Patients may be drowsy or agitated ,associated with a deteroration in thinking ,attention,perception and memory.
Compulsions :repetitive and seemingly purposeless behavior ,such as checking ,counting or cleaning.May include extensive rituals which can become incapacitating .
Delusions: A belief held by the patient which is unshakable in spite of overwhelming evidence to the contrary and is not in keeping with there social and cultural backgrounds .
-Autochthonous delusion(primary delusion)-A delusion arising suddenly and with full conviction without any preceding mental event.
-Delusional memories -Memories reinterpreted in a delusional way in the light of new morbid experiences.
-Delusional mood-A primary experience of mood change anxiety ,foreboding ,sense of something ,sinister happening without any obvious reason for such a feeling .
-Delusional perception-A normal percept followed by a sudden delusional idea as in a primary delusion.
-Delusions of reference-Delsional interpretation of innocuous events,remarks,etc attributing personal significance to them.
-Fregoli Delusion(named after an Italian actor)-patient identifies various different people as a single often familiar person believing he or she to be capable of formidable disguises.
-Capgras Delusion-The delusional idea that familiar people have been replaced by doubles.
-Cotards Syndrome-Exterme form of nihilistic delusion in which the individual feels that they are dead.
-Nihilistic delusions -Delusions of the non existence of objects or people
-Persecutory delusions-delusions of being persecuted by individuals or organisations,etc.
-Secondary delusions-Delusional ideas which have arisen from pathological experience and can be understood therfore to be secondary to them.
depersonalization : A distressing feeling in which one's body feels unreal
Derealisation:Feeling as if the world appears to be unreal(often described as like looking at a film)
Echo de la Pensee(GEDANKENLAUTWERDEN):voices repeating the patients thoughts .
Echopraxia:The imitation of interviewer's movements automatically,even when asked not to do so.
Eidetic imagery:Visual images of such intensity it has a photographic quality.
Flight of Ideas :Topics ,patients speech change rapidly before completion but with comprehensible links between topics .
Hallucinations :A percept experienced as being outside one's mind .Can occur in any modality ,but there is no external corollary providing sense data for the percept.
-Autoscopic Hallucinations-experience of seeing one's own body in external space.
-Elementary Hallucinations-simple percepts such as noice or flashes of light.
-Extra campine visual hallucinations-hallucinations experienced as outside the feild of vision.
-Hynogogic hallucinations-hallucinations experienced on falling asleep,can occur in healthy people.
-Hypnopompic hallucinations-experienced during awakening
-somatic hallucinations-hallucinatory sensations felt in the external body or internal body(viscera)
-Third person Auditory hallucinations-voices heard talking about the patient referring to him in the third person (he or she ,or by name)
Illusions :misinterpretation of sense data.A coat on a coat stand appearing in dim light to be a man standing ,not pathological but more likely to occur with for example in delerium
Imagery:experienced within the mind and without the sense of reality of a perception .Can be controlled by an effort.
Loosening of associations:Fragmented structure to thinking .Leaves the listener with a feeling of bewilderment that cannot be clarified by further enquiry.
Mannerisms:Repeated movement appearing to have functional significance.
Neologisms-Words or phrases invented by the patient to describe his morbid experience.
Negativism :refers to movement ,when the patients do the opposite from what is asked and actively resist efforts to persuade to comply.