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Biostatistics; Daily Free Online Mock Test 127 (PGI pattern)

Author: RxPG, Posted on Sunday, October 19 @ 00:00:00 IST by RxPG  

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Multiple Choice Test

1) A biochemical assay for a newly-discovered hormone is stated to have a reference interval of between 0 and 7 picog/dl. Suppose now that this reference interval is (arbitrarily) reduced to between 0 and 3 picog/dl.The effect of reducing the reference interval will be to:

One answer only.
   A. Increase the test's specificity.
   B. Decrease the number of false-positive results.
   C. Increase the number of false-negative results.
   D. Increase the sensitivity of the test.
   E. Not alter the test's sensitivity or specificity.

2) The most appropriate statement applied to the statistical term 'validity' is that it:

One answer only.
   A. Expresses the degree to which two things are related.
   B. Implies that the results of a test can be reproduced.
   C. Describes how well a study measures what it purports to measure.
   D. Measures the strength of relationship between cause and effect.
   E. Indicates the probability of obtaining a given result by chance alone.

3) The standard chi-squared test for a 2 by 2 contingency table is valid only if:

One answer only.
   1. Both variables are continuous.
   2. At least one variable is from a Normal distribution.
   3. All the observed frequencies are greater than five.
   4. All the expected frequencies are greater than five.
   5. All the variables form a normal distribution

4) In a chi-squared test for a 5 by 3 contingency table:

Choose 2 of the following options.
   1. Observed frequencies are compared to expected frequencies
   2. There are 15 degrees of freedom.
   3. At least 12 cells must have expected values greater than 5.
   4. All the observed values must be greater than 1.
   5. There are 5/3 degrees of freedom

5) Fisher's exact test for a contingency table:

Choose 4 of the following options.
   1. Applies to 2 by 2 tables.
   2. Usually gives a larger probability than the ordinary chi-squared test.
   3. Is suitable when expected frequencies are small.
   4. Is difficult to calculate when the expected frequencies are large.
   5. Not better than chi squared test

6) When an odds ratio is calculated from a two by two table:

Choose 4 of the following options.
   1. The odds ratio is a measure of the strength of the relationship between the row and column variables.
   2. If the order of the rows and the order of the columns is reversed, the odds ratio will be unchanged.
   3. The ratio may take any positive value.
   4. The odds ratio will be changed to its reciprocal if the order of the columns is changed.
   5. The ratio can be in negative

7) McNemar's test could be used to:

One answer only.
   1. Look at the relationship between cigarette smoking and respiratory symptoms in a group of asthmatics.
   2. Examine the change in PEFR in a group of asthmatics from winter to summer.
   3. Compare the number of cigarette smokers among a group of cancer cases and a random sample of the general population.
   4. Compare the numbers of cigarette smokers among cancer cases and age and sex matched healthy controls.
   5. None of the above

8) A new test ('T') is being evaluated for its sensititivity in diagnosing a disease state 'D'. A group of 200 patients, whose disease-state (D+ or D-) is correctly known are surveyed with the new test. The results of the survey (T+ or T-) are: D+T+ 40; D-T+ 60; D+T- 80; D-T- 20. The sensitivity of the test expressed as a percentage is:

One answer only.
   A. 20%
   B. 33%
   C. 40%
   D. 67%
   E. 90%

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