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Behavior Therapy

Author: doctorgirl78, Posted on Monday, October 27 @ 12:53:49 IST by RxPG  

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Psychiatry

Classical conditioning
Learning is the acquisition of behavior patterns. One method of learning is through classical conditioning

Principles
The principles of classical conditioning by formulated by Ivan Pavlov
-In classical conditioning a natural or reflexive behavior is elicited in response to a stimulus
-A stimulus is a cue from an internal/external event
-A response is a behavior provoked by a stimulus

Unconditioned & conditioned stimuli & responses
-Something that naturally or automatically produces a response is a an unconditioned stimulus such as salivation in response to odor of food
-The behavior produced –salivation is known as unconditioned response because it does not have to be learned
-A conditioned response is one that is learned such as salivation in response to the sound of bell that in the past has been rung in conjunction with the presentation of food


Response acquisition and extinction
- In the acquisition phase the conditioned response such as salivation in response to bell is learned
- In the extinction phase the conditioned response decreases when the conditioned stimulus the bell is never followed by the unconditioned stimulus(food)
- Spontaneous recovery occurs after extinction when the conditioned response salivation in response to bell reappears
- In stimulus generalization a new stimulus such as the noise of a buzzer that resembles the conditioned stimulus the noise of bell also results in conditioned response-salivation

Aversive conditioning
-Classical conditioning to an aversive stimulus also called aversive conditioning pairs an unwanted behavior such as sexual interest in children with an aversive or painful stimulus such as electric shock
-Aversive conditioning also shows acquisition, extinction and spontaneous recovery

Operant conditioning

Principles
-B.F. Skinner
-Skinner’s theories relate to the concept of reinforcement. Behavior is determined by it consequences for the individual. The consequence or reinforcement follows immediately after the behavior
-In operant conditioning a behavior that is not a part of the organism’s natural repertoire can be learned through reward or punishment
-The focus of operant conditioning is an observable behavior. The organism’s history is not important

Reinforcement
-Reinforcement establishes a connection between the stimulus and a response and can be positive or negative
-Reinforcement is positive-reward if the introduction of a pleasant or positive stimulus increases the rate at which the behavior occurs e.g. giving child money results in increased time devoted to studying
-Reinforcement is negative if the removal of aversive or negative stimulus increases the rate of the behavior e.g. to avoid a shock rat presses a bar more frequently
-Positive or negative reinforcement can be used to increase a desired behavior. A reward can be tangible e.g. a candy or intangible e.g. attention from a teacher
-Extinction is the disappearance of a learned behavior when the reward is withheld.

Patterns of reinforcement
-When and in what pattern is reinforcement is presented determines the rate of the response or behavior
-Continuous reinforcement is presented after every response and is the pattern of reinforcement in which the desired behavior is initially learned most quickly and in which the behavior disappears most quickly when the reinforcement is not presented(least resistant to extinction)
-Fixed reinforcement is presented after a set number of responses
-Variable reinforcement occurs after a random and unpredictable number of responses and is very resistant to extinction. Because every desirable response rarely can be rewarded variable reinforcement is the type that occurs most often in daily life.
-Payoffs on slot machines demonstrate variable ratio reinforcement
-Fishing demonstrates variable interval reinforcement

Punishment
-Punishment is an aversive stimulus aimed at reducing the unwanted behavior
-Ignoring a child who misbehaves-extinction rather than hitting him-punishment is more likely to result in long lasting disappearance of the unacceptable behavior

Shaping and modeling
-Shaping involves rewarding closer and closer approximations of the wanted behavior until the correct behavior is achieved
-modeling is a type of observational learning e.g. individual adopts the behavior of someone who is admired





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