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Hallmark Findings

Author: RxPG, Posted on Thursday, June 12 @ 14:49:54 IST by RxPG  

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This is a complete list for the Hallmark findings in medicine. A very important list for PG entrance examinations. This is an example revision card from RxPG postal crash course.


Albumino-Cytologic Dissociation Guillain-Barre (markedly increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count)
Antiplatelet Antibodies idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Arachnodactyly Marfan's
Aschoff Bodies rheumatic fever
Auer Rods acute myelocytic leukemia
Autosplenectomy sickle cell anemia
Babinski UMN lesion
Basophilic Stippling of RBCs lead poisoning
Bence Jones Protein multiple myeloma free light chains (either kappa or lambda)

Waldenstrom's macroglobinemia

Birbeck Granules histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Blue Bloater Chronic Bronchitis
Boot-Shaped Heart Tetralogy of Fallot
Bouchard's Nodes osteoarthritis (PIP)
Boutonniere's Deformity rheumatoid arthritis
Brown Tumor hyperparathyroidism
Brushfield Spots Down's
Call-Exner Bodies granulosa cell tumor
Cardiomegaly with Apical Atrophy Chagas' Disease
Chancre 1° Syphilis
Chancroid Haemophilus ducreyi
Charcot Triad multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech)
Charcot-Leyden Crystals bronchial asthma
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing cerebral lesion
Chocolate Cysts endometriosis
Chvostek's Sign Hypocalcemia facial spasm in tetany
Clue Cells Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman's Triangle osteosarcoma
Cold Agglutinins Mycoplasma pneumoniae

infectious mononucleosis

Condyloma Lata 2° Syphilis
Cotton Wool Spots HTN
Councilman Bodies dying hepatocytes
Crescents In Bowman's Capsule rapidly progressive (crescentic glomerulonephritis)
Currant-Jelly Sputum Klebsiella
Curschmann's Spirals bronchial asthma
Depigmentation Of Substantia Nigra Parkinson's
Donovan Bodies granuloma inguinale (STD)
Eburnation osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
Ectopia Lentis Marfan's
Erythema Chronicum Migrans Lyme Disease
Fatty Liver Alcoholism and relatively normal with age and obesity
Ferruginous Bodies asbestosis
Ghon Focus / Complex Tuberculosis (1° & 2°, respectively)
Gower's Maneuver Duchenne's MD use of arms to stand
Heberden's Nodes Osteoarthritis (DIP)
Heinz Bodies G6PDH Deficiency
Hemorrhagic Urticaria Henoch-Schonlein
Heterophil Antibodies infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
Hirano Bodies Alzheimer's
Hypersegmented PMNs Megaloblastic anemia
Hypochromic Microcytic RBCs iron-deficiency anemia
Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction Syphilis over-aggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt. that causes symptoms 2° to rapid lysis
Joint Mice osteoarthritis (fractured osteophytes)
Kaussmaul Breathing acidosis
Keratin Pearls SCCA
Keyser-Fleischer Ring Wilson's
Kimmelstiel-Wilson Nodules diabetic nephropathy
Koilocytes HPV
Koplik Spots measles
Lewy Bodies Parkinson's (eosinophilic inclusions in damaged substantia nigra cells)
Lines of Zahn arterial thrombus
Lisch Nodules neurofibromatosis (von Recklinhausen's disease)
Lumpy-Bumpy IF Glomeruli poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
McBurney's Sign appendicitis (McBurney's Point is 2/3 of the way from the umbilicus to anterior superior iliac spine)
Michealis-Gutmann Bodies Malakoplakia
Monoclonal Antibody Spike multiple myeloma this is called the M protein (usually IgG or IgA)


Myxedema hypothyroidism
Negri Bodies rabies
Neuritic Plaques Alzheimer's
Neurofibrillary Tangles Alzheimer's
Non-pitting Edema Myxedema

Anthrax Toxin

Notching of Ribs Coarctation of Aorta
Nutmeg Liver CHF
Painless Jaundice pancreatic CA (head)
Pannus rheumatoid arthritis
Pautrier's Microabscesses mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Philadelphia Chromosome CML


Pick Bodies Pick's Disease
Pink Puffer Emphysema Centroacinar ­ smoking Panacinar - a1-antitrypsin deficiency
Podagra gout (MP joint of hallux)
Port-Wine Stain Hemangioma
Posterior Anterior Drawer Sign tearing of the ACL
Psammoma Bodies Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid

Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary



Pseudohypertrophy Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Punched-Out Bone Lesions multiple myeloma
Rash on Palms & Soles 2° Syphilis


Red Morning Urine paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg Cells Hodgkin's Disease
Reid Index Increased chronic bronchitis
Reinke Crystals Leydig cell tumor
Rouleaux Formation multiple myeloma RBC's stacked as poker chips
S3 Heart Sound L®R Shunt (VSD, PDA)

Mitral Regurg

LV Failure

S4 Heart Sound Pulmonary Stenosis

Pulmonary HTN

Schwartzman Reaction Neisseria meningitidis impressive rash with bugs
Simian Crease Down's
Smith Antigen SLE (also anti-dsDNA)
Soap Bubble on X-Ray giant cell tumor of bone
Spike & Dome Glomeruli membranous glomerulonephritis
String Sign on X-ray Crohn's bowel wall thickening
Target Cells Thalassemia
Tendinous Xanthomas Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Thyroidization of Kidney chronic pyelonephritis
Tophi gout
Tram-Track Glomeruli membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Trousseau's Sign visceral ca, classically pancreatic (migratory thrombophlebitis)

hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)

These are two entirely different disease processes and different signs, but they unfortunately have the same name.

Virchow's Node supraclavicular node enlargement by metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Warthin-Finkeldey Giant Cells Measles
WBC Casts pyelonephritis
Wire Loop Glomeruli lupus nephropathy, type IV
- AFP in amniotic fluid or mother's serum Spina Bifida


- Uric Acid Gout

Lesch Nyhan

Myeloproliferative Disorders

Diuretics (Loop & Thiazides)


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