RxPG - the perfect Rx for medical Post Graduate entrance blues!
Mobile Edition | Help/Newbie? | 24/7 Support
HOT | PrePG | MCQ | DNB | Careers | Books | Colleges | Dental | DocIndia | PLAB |  USMLE  | Australia | Canada | GLOBAL | OffBeat!
Articles | Forums | MCQ Crammer | Downloads | Mnemonics | Revision Tools | Recent Shouts | All Features


Syndromes

Author: RxPG, Posted on Thursday, June 12 @ 15:07:24 IST by RxPG  

 FRIEND Add to My Pages   PRINTER Printer Friendly   FRIEND Email Story  FRIEND Download Story  Medicine alerts 

Medicine

This is a list for all the frequently asked syndromes in PG Entrance exams. You can take the print out from the right hand side prienter friendly option. It is an example revision card from RxPG Postal Crash Course.

SYNDROMES


ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES

  • ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME: Radiation exposure.
    • 12 hours post-exposure: Vomiting
    • 24 hours post-exposure: Prostration (extreme exhaustion), fever, diarrhea
    • Later: Petechial hemorrhage, hypotension, tachycardia, profuse bloody diarrhea, maybe death.
  • CHINESE RESTAURANT SYNDROME: MSG reaction ------> Chest Pain, burning sensation over parts of body.
  • BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME: Damage (injury) to half of spinal cord ------> symptoms:
    • Loss of pain and temperature sensation on contralateral side of body.
    • Loss of proprioception and discriminatory touch on ipsilateral side of body.


CARDIOVASCULAR

  • ADAMS-STOKES SYNDROME: Heart block, with slow or absent pulse, often accompanied by convulsions.
  • BARLOW SYNDROME: Floppy Mitral Valve Syndrome; Massive Mitral Valve Prolapse ------> Late apical systolic murmur, systolic click, or both.
  • EISENMENGER'S SYNDROME: Ventricular-Septal Defect ------> Pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis.
  • FLOPPY-VALVE SYNDROME: Mitral Incompetence due to myxomatous degeneration of the leaflets.
  • LERICHE'S SYNDROME: Occlusion of distal aorta ------>
    • Hip, thigh, and calf fatigue.
    • Impotence
  • BEHCET'S SYNDROME: Vasculitis ------> secondary symptoms:
    • Oral and genital ulcers
    • Uveitis
    • Optic atrophy
  • SHOULDER-HAND SYNDROME: Pain in shoulder and swelling in hand, sometimes occurring after Myocardial Infarction.
  • SICK SINUS SYNDROME: Chaotic atrial activity; continual changes in P-Waves. Bradycardia, alternating with recurrent ectopic beats and runs of tachycardia.
  • SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME: Caused by a tumor. Obstruction of SVC ------>
    • Edema
    • Engorgement of the vessels of face, neck, and arms.
    • Nonproductive cough
    • Dyspnea
  • TAKAYASU'S SYNDROME: Arteritis of the Aortic Arch, resulting in no pulse. Seen in young women.
  • WOLF-PARKINSON WHITE SYNDROME: ECG pattern of Paroxysmal Tachycardia.
    • Short PR interval
    • Delta wave = early QRS complex.


IATROGENIC (or Secondary to Medical Treatment)

  • AFFERENT LOOP SYNDROME: Gastrojejunal loop obstruction, proximal to a gastrojejunostomy.
    • Ingestion of food produces nausea, pain, and duodenal distension.
  • ASHERMAN'S SYNDROME: Adhesions within the endometrial cavity, causing amenorrhea and infertility.
    • Adhesions probably were caused by surgery.
  • ULYSSES SYNDROME: Ill effects from follow-up diagnostic tests following a false-positive screening test.


NEOPLASTIC (Malignant or Benign)

  • CARCINOID SYNDROME: Carcinoid tumor producing Bradykinin + Serotonin ------> secondary symptoms:
    • Cyanotic flushing
    • Diarrhea
    • Bronchial spasm
    • Edema, ascites.
  • CRONKHITE-CANADA SYNDROME: GI-Polyps with diffuse alopecia (hair-loss) and nail dystrophy.
    • May see protein-losing enteropathy and malabsorption.
  • GARDNER'S SYNDROME: Multiple inherited tumors, hereditary dominant trait.
    • Skull osteomas, Fibromas, Epidermoid cysts
    • Colonic polyposis (APC gene) ------> predisposition to colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • LAMBERT-EATON SYNDROME: Progressive proximal muscle weakness secondary to a carcinoma.
  • MEIGS' SYNDROME: Fibroma of ovary with ascites and hydrothorax
  • PANCOAST SYNDROME: Tumor near pulmonary apex ------>
    • Neuritic pain of chest and arm
    • Muscle atrophy of the arm
    • Horner's Syndrome (impaired cervical sympathetics)
  • PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME: Polyposis (hamartomas) of small intestine
    • Also see melanin pigmentation of buccal mucosa and skin around mouth and lips

 

CONGENITAL

  • CEREBELLAR SYNDROME: Congenital Cerebellar Ataxia
  • CERVICAL SYNDROME: Supernumerary C7 rib ------> Pressure on brachial plexus ------> pain radiating over shoulder, arm, and forearm over C7 distribution.
  • DANDY-WALKER SYNDROME: Obstruction of Foramina of Magendie and Luschka in infants ------> Hydrocephalus.
  • DIGEORGE SYNDROME: Congenital absence of 3rd and 4th Branchial Arches (Thymus and Parathyroid Glands) ------> secondary symptoms:
    • No cell-mediated immunity ------> Frequent viral and fungal infections
    • Characteristic facial deformities
  • DOWN SYNDROME: Trisomy 21. Mental retardation, characteristic facial features, Simeon crease in hand.
  • FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type I: Bone-marrow hypoplasia ------> refractory anemia, pancytopenia.
  • EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME: Congenital defect in collagen.
    • Hyper-elasticity and friability of the skin.
    • Hyperextensibility of the joints.
  • FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME: Fetal malformations, growth deficiencies, craniofacial anomalies, limb defects.
  • GOODPASTURE'S SYNDROME: Autoantibodies against basement membranes ------> Glomerulonephritis (kidney) and hemoptysis (lungs).
    • Often, death by renal failure
  • KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME: Trisomy XXY ------> testicular atrophy, increase in gonadotropins in urine.
  • KLIPPEL-FEIL SYNDROME:
    • Cervical vertebrate fused
    • Congenital short neck, limited neck rotation
    • Abnormalities of the brainstem and cerebellum
    • Low hairline.
  • LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME: Deficiency of HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phospho-ribosyltransferase ------>
    • Hyperuricemia, uric acid kidney stones
    • Choreoathetosis
    • Mental retardation, autism, spastic cerebral palsy
    • X-Linked recessive
  • MARFAN SYNDROME: Connective Tissue disorder ------>
    • Arachnodactyly: Abnormally long digits and extremities
    • Subluxation of lens
    • Dissecting aortic aneurism
  • POSTRUBELLA SYNDROME: Infantile defects resulting from maternal Rubella infection during first trimester.
    • Microphthalmos, cataracts
    • Deafness
    • Mental retardation
    • Patent ductus arteriosis, Pulmonary arterial stenosis
  • PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: Short stature, mental retardation, polyphagia with marked obesity, sexual infantilism.
  • RENDU-OSLER-WEBER SYNDROME: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
  • SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME: Unexplained death in sleeping infants.
  • TURNER'S SYNDROME: XO monosomy.
    • Dwarfism
    • Webbed neck
    • Valgus of elbow.
    • Amenorrhea
  • WILSON SYNDROME: Congenital defect in Ceruloplasmin, leading to buildup of copper ------> mental retardation, cirrhosis, hepatolenticular degeneration.

 


 

ENDOCRINE, REPRODUCTIVE

  • AMENNORRHEA-GALACTORRHEA SYNDROME: Non-physiologic lactation, resulting from endocrinologic causes or from a pituitary disorder.
  • CONN'S SYNDROME: Primary Hyperaldosteronism ------> muscular weakness, hypertension, hypokalemia, alkalosis.
  • CUSHING'S SYNDROME: Hypersecretion of cortisol ------> secondary symptoms and characteristics:
    • Fatness of face and trunk with wasting of extremities
    • Buffalo hump
    • Bone decalacification
    • Corticoid diabetes
    • Hypertension
  • PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME: Abnormal sensation in breasts, abdominal pain, thirst, headache, pelvic congestion, nervous irritability.
    • Ocassionally nausea and vomiting.
  • SHEEHAN'S SYNDROME: Post-partum pituitary necrosis ------> hypopituitarism.
  • STEIN-LEVENTHAL SYNDROME: Polycystic ovary ------> infertility, amenorrhea, hirsutism. Seen in obese women.
  • TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION SYNDROME: Insensitivity to Testosterone. Male Psuedohermaphroditism
    • Complete female external genatalia, incompletely developed vagina, rudimentary uterus.


PULMONARY

  • KARTAGENER'S SYNDROME: Situs Inversus (lateral transposition of lungs) resulting from chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis.
  • HAMMAN-RICH SYNDROME: Interstitial fibrosis of the lung.
  • MIDDLE-LOBE SYNDROME: Chronic pneumonitis and atalectasis of middle lobe of right lung.
  • CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME: Allergic Granulomatous Angiitis: Asthma, fever, eosinophilia.

INFECTIOUS

  • FITZ-HUGH-CURTIS SYNDROME: Gonococcal Periphepatitis in woman, as a complication of Gonorrhea.
  • GUILLAN-BARRE SYNDROME: Infectious Polyneuritis of unknown cause.
  • HUNT'S SYNDROME: Herpe's Zoster infection of Facial Nerve (CN VII) and Geniculate Ganglion ------> facial palsy.
    • Zoster of ear
  • REYE'S SYNDROME: Loss of consciousness and seizures in kids, after a viral infection treated by aspirin.
  • REITER'S SYNDROME: Symptom cluster. Etiology is thought to be Chlamydial or post-chlamydial.
    • Urethritis
    • Iridocyclitis (Conjunctivitis)
    • Arthritis
    • Skin lesions like karatoderma blenorrhagicum
    • Also can see fatty liver or liver necrosis.
  • SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME: S. Aureus toxic epidermal necrolysis.
  • STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Erythema Multiforme complication.
    • Large areas of skin slough, including mouth and anogenital membranes.
    • Mucous membranes: stomatitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis.
    • Headache, fever, malaise.
  • TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME: Caused by superabsorbent tampons. Infection with Staph Aureus and subsequent toxicity of exotoxin TSST ------> systemic anaphylaxis.
    • Fever, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Red rash followed by desquamation
  • WATERHOUSE-FRIEDRICHSON SYNDROME: Meningeococcal Meningitis ------> DIC, hemorrhagic infarct of adrenal glands ------> fulminant adrenal failure.
    • Vomiting, diarrhea.
    • Shock
    • Extensive purpura, cyanosis, circulatory collapse.

RENAL

  • KEMMELSTIEL-WILSON SYNDROME: Diabetic Glomerulosclerosis.
  • BARTTER'S SYNDROME: Juxtaglomerular Cell Hyperplasia ------> secondary symptoms:
    • Hyperaldosteronism, Hypokalemic Alkalosis, elevated renin and angiotensin
    • No hypertension.
    • Compare to Conn's Syndrome
  • FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type II: Renal aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hypophosphaturia, cysteine deposition, rickets.
  • THORN'S SYNDROME: Salt-losing nephritis.

 

NEUROLOGICAL

  • CARPAL-TUNNEL SYNDROME: Compression of Median Nerve through the Carpal Tunnel ------> pain and parasthesia over distribution of Median N.
  • FROIN'S SYNDROME: Block in CSF flow ------> xanthochromia (yellow discoloration) of CSF.
  • ACUTE-BRAIN SYNDROME: Delirium, confusion, disorientation, developing suddenly in a person that was previously psychologically normal.
  • GERSTMANN'S SYNDROME: Lesion between occipital area and angular gyrus ------> symptoms:
    • Finger agnosia, Agraphia, acalculia
    • Right-left disorientation
  • HORNER'S SYNDROME: Loss or lesion of cervical sympathetic ganglion ------>
    • Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
    • Enophthalmos (caved in eyes)
  • KORSAKOFF SYNDROME: Loss of short-term memory in chronic alcoholism, caused by degeneration of mamillary bodies.
  • RILEY-DAY SYNDROME: Familial dysautonomia.

GASTROINTESTINAL

  • MALLORY-WEISS SYNDROME: Laceration of lower end of esophagus from vomiting ------> hematemesis. Often seen in alcoholics.
  • MALABSORPTION SYNDROME: Impaired absorption of dietary substance ------> diarrhea, weakness, weight loss, or symptoms from specific deficiencies.
  • BARRET SYNDROME: Chronic peptic ulcer of the lower esophagus, resulting in metaplasia of esophageal columnar epithelium ------> squamous epithelium.
  • ZOLLINGER-ELLISOHN SYNDROME: Gastrin-secreting tumor in pancreas ------> Severe peptic ulcers, gastric hyperacidity.
  • PLUMMER-VINSON SYNDROME: Esophageal Webs, leading to dysphagis and atrophy of papillae of tongue.
    • Also see hypochromic anemia, splenomegaly.

RETICULOENDOTHELIAL, HEMATOLOGIC

  • BANTI'S SYNDROME: Chronic Congestive Splenomegaly with anemia, caused by either Portal Hypertension or Splenic Vein Thrombosis.
  • BUD-CHIARI SYNDROME:
    • ACUTE: Hepatic Vein Thrombosis ------> Massive ascites and dramatic death.
    • CHRONIC: Gradual hepatomegaly, portal hypertension, nausea, vomiting, edema, ulimately death.
  • DUBIN-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Defect in excretion of conjugated bilirubin ------> recurrent mild jaundice. Buildup of direct builirubin in blood.
  • CHIDIAK-HIGASHI SYNDROME: Abnormalities in leukocytes with large inclusions.
  • CRUVEILHIER-BAUMGARTEN SYNDROME: Symptoms cluster:
    • Liver cirrhosis
    • Caput Medussae
    • Venous hum and thrill
  • FELTY'S SYNDROME: Rheumatoid Arthritis with splenomegaly, leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia.
  • LOFFLER'S SYNDROME: Eosinophilia with transient infiltrates in lungs.

 

UNCATEGORIZED

  • YELLOW-NAIL SYNDROME: Stop growth of nails ------> increased convexity, thickening, and yellowing of nails.
    • Found in Lymphedema, bronchitis, chronic bronchiectasis.
  • COSTOCHONDRAL SYNDROME: Pain in chest with tenderness over one or more costochondral junctions.
    • Similar to Tietze's Syndrome but no specific inflammation.
  • TIETZE'S SYNDROME: Costochondritis. Swelling and tenderness of the costal cartilege.
  • MIKULICZ'S SYNDROME: Salivary and lacrimal enlargement as seen in several diseases:
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Tuberculosis
    • Leukemia
  • MUNCHAUSEN SYNDROME: Malingering -- fabrication of a clinically convincing disease by an itinerant malingerer.
  • PICKWICKIAN SYNDROME: Symptom cluster
    • Obesity
    • Hypoventilation
    • Somnolence
    • Erythrocytosis
  • RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME: Need to stretch legs at night before going to sleep; twitch in legs causing insomnia.
  • STRAIGHT BACK SYNDROME: Loss of normal kyphosis of thoracic spine ------>
    • Straight spine
    • Ejection murmur
    • Widened cardiac silouhette on x-ray
  • SJΦGREN'S SYNDROME: Autoimmune complex
    • Keratoconjuctivitis Sicca (dry eyes and mouth)
    • Dryness of Mucous membranes
    • Telangiectasias in face
    • Parotid enlargement

 




4 (Excellent) 3(Good) 2(Good) 1(Bad)   


Recommended Books for Medicine
• Books to read for Medicine by RxPG

Related Medicine articles
• 'CAT' RELATED POINTS IN MEDICINE
• Types of Tongues in Various Medical Conditions
• Signs in Meningitis
• How To Read Harrison And Make The Most Of It?
• Examination of nails in medicine
• Triads in Medicine: A Quick Revision List
• Medical Conditions affecting Nails
• Diagnosis of diffuse lung disease
• Common simple emergencies
• Wilson's disease
• medicine updates!
• Abnormal colours of urine
• ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS
• Noonan's syndrome
• Medicine; Online Mock Test (PGI Pattern)
• Characteristic Feature of Hypocalcaemia
• diagnosis of pulmonary microembolism.
• CHAPTER WISE CHANGES IN HARRISON’S PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
• CHANGES IN HARRISON’S PRINCIPLES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE CATEGORISED.
• Differentiating features of Leukemias (Leukaemias)

Related Medicine Discussions

Other articles by RxPG
• RxPG Interview With Dr Sumit Seth - Civil Services 2005 Top Ranker
• Stroke - Neurology Online Mock Test 235
• Stroke - Neurology Online Mock Test 234
• Stroke - Neurology Online Mock Test 233
• List of Some Bioinformatics Courses in India
• Microbiology and Parasitology Online Mock Test 232
• DNB Online Mock Test 231
• Neurology Online Mock Test 230
• Anatomy Mock MCQ Test 229
• Anatomy Mock MCQ Test 228
• Revisable Quick List of New Drugs for PG Entrance Exams
• Radiology Daily Online Mock Test 228
• Pediatrics Free Online Daily Mock Test 227 - PGI Exam Pattern
• Paediatrics PGIMER PG Entrance Pattern Free Online Mock Test 226
• Paediatrics Free Online PG Entrance Daily Mock Test 225
• Preservatives used while packing catgut suture
• Neurology Free Online Mock Test 223
• Biostatistics Online Mock Test 222
• Neurology Free Online Medical Mock Test 221
• Neurology Free Online Medical Mock Test 220

 Medicine FAQ
  Browse all FAQs


Write an Article on Medicine
You can share your exam experiences, preparation strategies, books you have read or just any information about Medicine on RxPG website and we will publish it under your name.

Article Rating
Average Score: 4.37
Votes: 16




Most Read Article
How To Read Harrison And Make The Most Of It?

Related Links
· MRCP books at Amazon.com
· Clinical Skills
· Medicine Books at Amazon.com
· Medicine Forum
· Discuss Past Papers
· Harrison's Free Trial






ARTICLE TOOLS

· Medicine section
· Articles by RxPG
· Add to my pages
· Printer friendly version
· PDF version
· Email article
· Feedback on this article
· Medical tutorials
· Related forum posts
· Related articles
· Related downloads
· Submit article
· Medicine alerts
· Medicine books
· Medicine past papers


Most read story about Medicine:
How To Read Harrison And Make The Most Of It?



Server Status: 104 pages served in last minute. Page generation time: 0.035 seconds

Site Maps: [Books] [News] [Forums] [Reviews] [Mnemonics]

sitemap - top30 - centuries - testimonials


About Us :: Disclaimer :: Contact Us :: Reporting abuse :: Terms of Services :: Privacy Policy

Advertise with RxPG!
Made in India by RxPG Medical Solutions Private Limited

"RxPG" is a Registered Trademark

Chrome Web Store YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Wikipedia Facebook