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Eponyms - A

Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D., Posted on Thursday, April 15 @ 18:11:46 IST by RxPG  

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Eponyms

ADAMKIEWICZ, ARTERY OF
artery responsible for anterior spinal syndrome; could be bagged in AAA repair

ADAMSON'S FRINGE
in tinea capitis, the location of the terminal tuft of hyphae; weakest point of hair located just about Adamson's fringe

ADDISON'S DISEASE
primary adrenal insufficiency; bilateral adrenal destruction by TB used to be most common cause, now only accounts for 7-20% of cases; now autoimmune disease 70-90%, with remainder caused by infectious disease, mets or lymphoma, adrenal hemorrhage or infarction or drugs

ADIE'S PUPIL
tonic pupil, larger than contralateral unaffected pupil, reacts sluggishly to changes in illumination, q.v. Holmes-Adie syndrome; seen in young women; no neurologic significance

ADSON'S SIGN
for diagnosing thoracic outlet syndrome, decrease in ipsilateral radial pulse and/or presence of subclavian bruit while patient extending neck maximally, rotating head towards side being tested, and holding breath

ALAGILLE SYNDROME
inherited cholestatic syndrome, associated with biliary hypoplasia (ductopenia), vertebral anomalies, prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, peripheral pulmonic stenosis

ALBERS-SCHΦNBERG DISEASE
osteopetrosis or marble bone disease

ALBRIGHT'S HEREDITARY OSTEODYSTROPHY
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, short stature, round face, skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly), and heterotopic calcification, precocious puberty, cafι-au-lait spots on skin, low calcium, high phosphate, resistance to elevated PTH levels from mutation in Gsalpha coupling PTH receptor to adenylyl cyclase; also see Archibald's sign

ALDER-REILLY ANOMALY
large, dark, pink-purple granules in cytoplasm of neutrophils; AR trait resulting in abnormal granule development in neutrophils resembling severe toxic granulation

ALEXANDER'S DISEASE
leukodystrophy-like neurodegenerative disease presenting in infancy or childhood; characterized by Rosenthal fibers

ALEXANDER'S LAW
peripheral vestibular nystagmus increases in intensity when the gaze is in the direction of the fast phase, and decreases in intensity when the gaze is away from the fast phase

ALLEN'S SIGN
in pulmonary embolism, fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea, present in only 23% of cases

ALLEN'S TEST
for demonstrating patent ulnar artery and an intact superficial palmar arch, patient's hand is initially held high while fist is clenched and both radial and ulnar arteries are compressed, hand then lowered and fist is opened; after ulnar pressure released, color should return to the hand within 6 seconds

ALPORT'S SYNDROME
hereditary nephritis accompanied by nerve deafness and various eye disorders, including lens dislocation, posterior cataracts, and corneal dystrophy; a few families have large platelets (20-25 fl), thrombocytopenia, and leukocyte inclusions which resemble May-Hegglin anomaly

ALSTRΦM'S SYNDROME
obesity, autosomal recessive, childhood blindness due to retinal degeneration, nerve deafness, vasopressin-resistant diabetes insipidus, and in males hypogonadism with high plasma gonadotropin levels (end organ resistance to hormones), also baldness, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, aminoaciduria

ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
most frequent cause of dementia, pathologically characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques, and granulovacuolar degeneration, degeneration of nucleus basalis of Meynert (principal origin of cholinergic innervation); described in 1906

ANGEL'S SIGN
performing an otoscopic exam while patient is blowing against a pinched nose; increases sensitivity of otoscopy for the detection of a perforated tympanic membrane by demonstrating fluid or pus in the external canal; described in 1994

ANGELMAN SYNDROME
"happy puppet," maternal chromosome deleted 15q11-13

ANITSCHKOW MYOCYTES
in rheumatic fever, large mesenchymal cells in myocardial lesion

ANTON'S SYNDROME
denial of cortical blindness; a form of anosognosia

AORTIC REGURGITATION EPONYMS
Becker's sign, Corrigan's pulse, de Musset's sign, Durozeiz's sign, Gerhard's sign, Hill's sign, Landolfi's sign, Mayne's sign, Mόller's sign, Quincke's sign, Rosenbach's sign, Traube's sign, Watson's water hammer pulse

APERT SYNDROME
autosomal dominant disorder from mutation in FGFR2 characterized by craniosynostosis, mid-facial malformations, symmetric bony syndactyly of hands and feet, and varying degrees of mental retardation, from missense mutations in the fibroblast growth-factor-receptor 2 (FGFR2) genes

APLEY GRIND TEST
for meniscal tears, flex patient's leg to 90 degrees, then grind the tibial condyles against the femoral condyles with rotation motion in the varus and then valgus positions

APLEY SCRATCH TEST
asking patient to scratch the back from above or bottom, looking for furthest point reached (T4-T5 former, T7-T8 latter nl); if can't reach, infraspinatus/teres minor tendonitistear or subscapularis tendonitis/tear respectively

APLEY'S LAW
in pediatrics, the further a chronically recurrent abdominal pain is from the umbilicus, the greater the likelihood of an organic cause for the pain

APT TEST
test which differentiates fetal from maternal hemoglobin

ARCHIBALD'S SIGN
in pseudohypoparathyroidism of Albert's hereditary osteodystrophy, characteristic shortening of the fourth and fifth digits as dimpling over the knuckles of a clenched fist

ARGYLL ROBERTSON PUPILS
small irregular pupils, usually but not always caused by CNS syphilis, they accommodate, but don't react; absence of miotic reaction to light, both direct and consensual, with preservation of a miotic reaction to near stimulus; lesion in tectum of midbrain

ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION
downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and medulla through the foramen magnum, results in pressure atrophy of displaced brain tissue, hydrocephalus from obstruction of the CSF outflow tract, is almost always characterized by the presence of a thoracolumbar meningomyelocele

ARTHUS REACTION
localized area of tissue necrosis resulting from acute immune complex vasculitis; type III hypersensitivity

ASCHOFF BODY
pathognomonic finding in rheumatic carditis, an area of local fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by inflammatory cells including lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages that later resolve to fibrous scar tissue

ASHERMAN'S SYNDROME
intrauterine synechiae, typically occurs after curettage of the uterus, presenting as amenorrhea

ASPERGER'S DISORDER
severe and sustained impairment in social interactions and the development of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, but intellectually normal and no language delays, but with abnormalities of spoken language

ATRIAL CONDUCTION SYSTEM
anterior internodal tract, Bachmann's bundle middle i.t., Wenckebach's bundle posterior i.t., Thorel's pathway

AUENBRUGGER'S SIGN
epigastric bulge due to a massive pericardial effusion

AUER RODS
present in acute myelogenous leukemia or refractory anemia with excess blasts; granules form elongated needles, granules are all azurophilic, contain peroxidase; fused lysosomes

AUERBACH'S PLEXUS
myenteric plexus, between the longitudinal and circular layers of muscle; provides motor innervation to the two muscle layers and secretomotor innervation to the mucosa

AUSPITZ'S SIGN
for psoriasis; sign is positive when slight scratching or curetting of a scaly lesion reveals punctate bleeding points within the lesion; suggests psoriasis, but is not specific

AUSTIN FLINT MURMUR
diastolic rumble in aortic insufficiency heard in cardiac apex, thought to be due to aortic jet impinging on the mitral valve, causing it to vibrate and also from simultaneous diastolic filling of the left ventricle from the left atrium and aorta tends to close the mitral valve in diastole, producing physiologic stenosis

AUSTRALIA ANTIGEN
HBsAg, found in the serum of an Australian aborigine



Note: Eponyms Database Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D. (website: eponyms.net)

You can also revise eponyms using eponyms revision tool available at Eponyms Crammer



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