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Eponyms - C

Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D., Posted on Thursday, April 15 @ 18:12:11 IST by RxPG  

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Eponyms

CABOT RING
in asplenia or malfunctional spleen, nuclear remnants on red blood cells as a thin, darkly-stained ring that follows the margin of the red cell

CABRERA'S SIGN
notching at 0.05s in ascending limb of S wave in V3, V4; 27% sens for MI

CADASIL
cerebral autosomal dominant arteropathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, rare hereditary cause of stroke that may involve Notch3 gene characterized by recurrent strokes (usually infarcts) and dementia

CAISSON DISEASE
decompression sickness

CALL-EXNER BODIES
in granulosa cell tumors, small follicles filled with eosinophilic secretion; an important diagnostic feature

CALOT'S TRIANGLE
the area bordered by the 1. cystic duct, 2. common hepatic duct, 3. lower edge of the liver; cystic artery, sometimes hepatic artery found here

CAMPBELL DE MORGAN SPOTS
cherry angioma

CAMPBELL DIAGRAM
used to determine the work of breathing, including the effects of chest wall compliance, lung compliance, and airway resistance

CANALE-SMITH SYNDROME
childhood disorder, first described in 1967, characterized by lymphadenopathy and autoimmunity; associated with mutations in Fas; implicates gene in accumulation of lymphocytes and the autoimmunity characteristic of the syndrome

CANAVAN DISEASE
autosomal recessive infantile spongy degeneration of the brain with Alzheimer type II cells, increased prevalence among Ashkenazi from mutation in aspartoacylase leading to increased levels of N-acetylaspartic acid, described in 1931

CANTLIE'S LINE
separates the right and left lobes of the liver--a line drawn from the IVC to just left of the gallbladder fossa

CANTRELL, PENTALOGY OF
Diaphragmatic defect (hernia), Cardiac abnormality, Omphalocele, Pericardium malformation/absence, Sternal cleft

CAPGRAS SYNDROME
delusional belief that one or a few highly familiar people have been replaced by impostors who are physically very similar to the original/s; seen rarely in schizophrenia.

CAPLAN'S SYNDROME
coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis with a pneumoconiosis, leading to the development of distinctive pulmonary lesions that develop fairly rapidly; these nodular lesions have central necrosis surrounded by fibroblasts, macrophages, and collagen; can occur in asbestosis and silicosis

CARCINOID TRIAD
1. flushing, 2. diarrhea, 3. right-sided heart failure (also bronchospasm)

CAREY COOMBS MURMUR
a blubbering apical mid diastolic murmur occurring in the acute stages of rheumatic mitral valvulitis and disappearing as the valvulitis subsides; Carey Coombs, English physician, 1879-1932

CARNETT'S TEST
head raise, tenderness persists in abdominal wall condition (rectus hematoma) whereas pain due to intraperitoneal disease lessens

CARNEY SYNDROME
AD complex cardiac myxomas, aggressive biologic behavior, spotty pigmentation, issue with endocrine tumors (causing e.g., Cushing syndrome)

CAROLI'S DISEASE
larger ducts of the intrahepatic biliary tree are segmentally dilated and may contain inspissated bile; pure forms are rare; this disease is usually associated with portal tract fibrosis of the congenital hepatic fibrosis type

CARRIΣN'S DISEASE
see Oroya fever

CARVALLO'S SIGN
in tricuspid regurgitation, murmur increases with inspiration

CASTLE INTRINSIC FACTOR
intrinsic factor secreted by parietal cells, which binds luminal B12 and permits its absorption in the ileum

CASTLEMAN'S DISEASE
benign lymphoproliferative disorder, characterized by hyperplastic lymphoid follicles with capillary proliferation

CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE
tender regional lymphadenopathy persisting for 3 weeks or longer, frequently preceded by primary skin lesion after contact with kits, appears to be caused by Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) henslae, a small, pleomorphic gram-negative bacillus

CHADDOCK'S SIGN
involuntary dorsiflexion of the toes when tapping from the lateral malleolus distally to the lateral dorsum of the foot in upper motor neuron defect

CHADWICK'S SIGN
blue-red passive hyperemia of the cervix that may appear after 7th week of pregnancy; may be seen in association with tumor; results from congestion of mucosa and most visible in anterior vaginal wall

CHAGAS'S DISEASE
zoonosis caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi; causes destruction of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, duodenum, colon, and ureter, with resultant dilatation of these structures as well as cardiac disease; transmitted by excreta of hematophagous organisms of the family Reduiviidae

CHAPMAN'S SIGN
notching of ascending limb of R in I, aVL, or V6

CHARCOT'S DISEASE
French eponym for ALS

CHARCOT'S JOINTS
neurogenic joint degeneration, can be secondary to syphilis, peripheral neuropathy

CHARCOT'S TRIAD
in multiple sclerosis, nystagmus, intention tremor, and staccato speech (or scanning speech)

CHARCOT'S TRIAD
in 70% of patients with bacterial cholangitis, right-upper-quadrant pain, jaundice, and fever; c.f. Reynold's pentad

CHARCOT-BOUCHARD ANEURYSMS
minute brain aneurysms from chronic hypertension, occurring in vessels less than 300 microns in diameter (different from saccular aneurysms), most commonly found within basal ganglia

CHARCOT-LEYDEN'S CRYSTALS
crystals in the shape of elongated double pyramids, formed from eosinophils (from lysophospholipase), found in the sputum in bronchial asthma and in other exudates or transudates containing eosinophils

CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE
most common inherited peripheral neuropathy, 1/2500, AD, clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by slowly progressive atrophy of the distal muscles, mainly those innervated by peroneal nerve; progressive weakness of varying intensity and atrophy of the muscles of the feet, hands, and legs, leading to pes cavus, clawhand, and stork-leg appearance, usually beginning in the 2nd or 3rd decade. Enlarged greater auricular nerves may be visible and enlarged ulnar and peroneal nerves may be palpated in some patients. Cranial nerves rarely involved

CHARGE ASSOCATION
coloboma, heart malformation, atresia choanae, retarded growth and development, and/or CNS anomalies, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies and/or deafness

CHARLES BONNET SYNDROME
visual deprivation hallucinations

CHARLIN'S SYNDROME OF NEURALGIA
severe pain in the inner corner of the eye disproportionate to the degree of ocular inflammation, pain in the root of the nose, tearing, and ipsilateral nasal watery discharge believed to be due to irritation of the ciliary ganglion

CHΙDIAK-HIGASHI SYNDROME
autosomal recessive disorder, neutropenia, defective degranulation, and delayed microbial killing. Neutrophils and other leukocytes have giant granules (can be seen on blood smears). Effect of microtubule polymerization causes delayed or decreased fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes in leukocytes and thus impairs phagocytosis of bacteria

CHEYNE-STOKES BREATHING
regularly irregular pattern characterized by a progressive increase in the depth and at times frequency of respiration with a crescendo-decrescendo shape that eventually culminates in an apneic phase; seen in CHF but also in meningitis, CVA, pontine damage

CHILAIDITI SYNDROME
when redundant loops of transverse colon slip between the liver and diaphragm and cause vovulus

CHRISTMAS DISEASE
hemophilia B, deficiency in factor IX

CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME
allergic angiitis and granulomatosis involvement in the lung, associated with eosinophilia; asthma is the cardinal feature (occurs in 95%) and precedes vasculitic phase by 8-10 years; 2/3 of patients have skin lesions which can appear as s.c. nodules on extensor surfaces; 70% have P-ANCA; 4/6 following criteria 85% sens and 99.7% spec: asthma; eosinophilia>10%; neuropathy; pulmonary opacities; paranasal sinus abnormality; biopsy of blood vessel showing eosinophils in extravascular area

CHVOSTEK'S SIGN
hypocalcemia, in latent tetany, tapping the facial nerve against the bone just anterior to the ear producing ipsilateral contraction of facial muscles

|CI
CIVATTE BODIES
aka colloid bodies; in lichen planus; anucleate, necrotic basal cells becoming incorporated into the inflamed papillary epidermis

CLARA CELLS
cells found in the epithelium of terminal and respiratory bronchioles, devoid of cilia, present secretory granules in their apex and are known to secrete glycosoaminoglycans that probably protect the bronchiolar lining

CLAUDE'S SYNDROME
third nerve palsy combined with contralateral ataxia with midbrain infarction and injury to both red nucleus and superior cerebellar peduncle (includes signs of both Nothnagel's and Benedikt's syndrome)

CLAY SHOVELER'S FRACTURE
fracture of spinous process of C7

CLUTTON'S JOINTS
in congenital syphilis, symmetrical arthrosis, especially of the knee joints

COCKAYNE'S SYNDROME
dwarfism, precociously senile appearance, pigmentary degeneration of the retina, optic atrophy, deafness, sensitivity to sunlight, and mental retardation; autosomal recessive inheritance defect in DNA repair?

COCKCROFT-GAULT FORMULA
for calculating clearance based on creatinine, age, etc.

CODMAN'S TRIANGLE
in osteosarcoma, the triangular shadow between the cortex and raised ends of periosteum is known radiographically as Codman's triangle, and is characteristic but not diagnostic of this tumor

COGAN SYNDROME
multisystem inflammatory vascular disease particularly of the CNS characterized by interstitial keratitis, vestibuloauditory symptoms

COLLES'S FRACTURE
a fracture of the distal radius that occurs when persons fall with outstretched hands to try to catch themselves

COLLIER'S SIGN
lid retraction in lesion of posterior commissure

CONJOINT TENDON
aponeurotic attachments of the transversus abdominis to the pubic tubercle (the classic conjoining of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique and transversus aponeurosis <4%)

CONN'S SYNDROME
primary hyperaldosteronism, caused by an aldosterone-secreting tumor, resulting in hypertension, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, metabolic alkalosis, and low plasma renin

COOLEY'S ANEMIA
homozygous beta thalassemia; Mediterranean anemia

COOMBS TEST
direct, ability of anti-IgG or anti-C3 antisera to agglutinate the patient's red blood cells; cold reacting antibodies react with anti-C3 (mostly drug-related antibodies, IgM antibodies (generally to polysaccharide), IgG antibodies of low affinity); indirect Coombs, serum of the patient is incubated with normal red cells, though IgM antibodies may agglutinate directly

COOPER'S HERNIA
hernia through the femoral canal and tracking into the scrotum or labia majus

CORI'S DISEASE
glycogen storage disease type III, deficiency in debranching enzyme, amylo-1,6-glucosidase, leading to variable accumulation of glycogen in the liver, heart, or skeletal muscle, characterized by stunted growth, hepatomegaly, and hypoglycemia

CORRIGAN'S PULSE
in aortic regurgitation, pulses are of the water-hammer or collapsing type with abrupt distension and quick collapse, can be exaggerated by raising the patient's arm

COSTEN'S SYNDROME
ear pain, tinnitus, impaired hearing, and dizziness from temporomandibular joint dysfunction

COUNCILMAN BODIES
in apoptosis, hepatocytes that round up to form shrunken, pyknotic, and intensely eosinophilic bodies

COURVOISIER'S LAW
tumors that obstruct the common bile duct result in an enlarged bladder; obstructing stones do not, since the gallbladder is typically too scarred to allow enlargement; present in half of pancreatic CA

COWDEN DISEASE
autosomal dominant condition associated with multiple hamartomatous lesions, especially of the skin, mucuous membranes, GI tract, breast and thyroid; associated with mutations in PTEN/MMAC1

CREUTZFELD-JAKOB DISEASE
fatal transmissible disorder of the CNS characterized by rapidly progressive dementia and variable focal involvement of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord, attributable to prions, characterized by myoclonus often induced by a startle, extrapyramidal signs, cerebellar signs; slowing and periodic complexes on EEG; 1 per 167,000 in U.S.; fatal within 1 year after onset of symptoms

CRI DU CHAT
5p-, severe mental retardation, microcephaly, catlike cry, low birth weight, hypertelorism, low-set ears, and epicanthal folds

CRIGLER-NAJJAR SYNDROME
type I, no hepatic glucoronyltransferase activity, kernicterus, requires liver transplantation; type II, moderate deficiency of glucoronyltransferase, phenobarb induces activity

CRONKHITE-CANADA SYNDROME
diffuse GI hamartoma polyps (i.e., no cancer potential) associated with malabsorption/weight loss, diarrhea and loss of electrolytes/protein; signs include alopecia, nail atrophy, and skin pigmentation

CROUZON SYNDROME
craniosynostosis correlated in mutations with the extracellular domain of FGFR2

CRUVEIHILER-BAUMGARTEN BRUIT
bruit heard over caput medusa in portal hypertension

CULLEN'S SIGN
a faintly blue coloration particularly of umbilicus as the result of retroperitoneal bleeding from any cause, but especially in ruptured ectopic pregnancy; also seen in acute pancreatitis (1-2%)

CURLING'S ULCERS
stress erosions and ulcers occurring in the proximal duodenum and associated with severe burns or trauma, from ischemia of the gastric mucosa

CURSCHMANN'S SPIRALS
spirally twisted masses of mucus plugs containing whirls of shed epithelium occurring in the sputum in bronchial asthma; Heinrich Curschmann, German physician, 1846-1910

CUSHING REACTION
increase in intracranial pressure causes compression of the cerebral blood vessels and cerebral ischemia, reaction of elevation in pressure with simultaneous reduction in heart rate, respiratory slowing

CUSHING'S DISEASE
hypercortisolism from pituitary corticotropin-(ACTH)-secreting corticotroph tumors, almost always benign and usually microadenomas

CUSHING'S SYNDROME
hypercortisolism

CUSHING'S TRIAD
signs of increased ICP 1. hypertension 2. bradycardia 3. irregular respirations

CUSHING'S ULCER
acute ulcer of the stomach, proximal duodenum, or esophagus, frequently leads to hemorrhage or perforation, associated with intracranial injury or increases in intracranial pressure, associated with gastric acid hypersecretion


Note: Eponyms Database Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D. (website: eponyms.net)

You can also revise eponyms using eponyms revision tool available at Eponyms Crammer



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