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Eponyms - B

Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D., Posted on Thursday, April 15 @ 18:12:37 IST by RxPG  

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Eponyms

BABINSKI SIGN
upper motor sign that indicates dysfunction of fibers within the pyramidal system; described in 1896 by Babinski, student of Charcot

BACHMANN'S BUNDLE
anterior internodal tract in atrial conduction system

BAINBRIDGE REFLEX
compensatory increase in HR cause by a rise in right atrial pressure

BAKER'S CYST
popliteal cyst, a fluid-filled mass within the popliteal fossa

BALINT'S SYNDROME
optic ataxia (inability to visually guide limb movements), ocular ataxia (inability to direct eyes to a precise point in the visual field), inability to enumerate objects in a picture or extract meaning from a picture, and inability to avoid objects in one's path, simultanagnosia, from infarction in unilateral or bilateral visual association due to watershed stroke between distal PCA and MCA

BALKAN NEPHROPATHY
degenerative interstitial nephropathy seen in Balkan areas (tributaries of Danube River), see tubular proteinuria, glycosuria, RTA, azotemia, associated with increased risk of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma

BALL'S DISEASE
intracerebral leukocytostasis, potentially fatal complication of acute leukemia (especially AML) when peripheral blast cell cound >100,000/uL; leukemic cells capable of invading through endothelium and casuing hemorrhage into brain; not seen generally with CLL or CML

BALLANCE'S SIGN
tender mass in the LUQ due to a spleen hematoma

BAMBOO SPINE
seen in ankylosing spondylitis

BANTI'S SYNDROME
splenomegaly, hypersplenism, and portal hypertension, noncirrhotic, arises after subclinical occlusion of the portal vein, usually years after occlusive event

BANTU SIDEROSIS
unusual form of iron overloading resembling hereditary hemochromatosis in South African blacks ingesting large quantities of alcoholic beverages fermented in iron utensils

BÁRÁNY TEST
see Dix-Hallpike test

BARLOW'S DISEASE
mitral valve prolapse

BARLOW'S MANEUVER
for congenital hip dislocation, patient placed in supine position and attempt made to push femurs posteriorly with knees at 90 degrees/hip flexed and hip will dislocate

BARRETT'S ESOPHAGUS
esophageal strictures and epithelial metaplasia from squamous epithelium to a specialized columnar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia in 10% of severe GERD

BARTH SYNDROME
infantile X-linked cardioskeletal myopathy

BARTTER'S SYNDROME
hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis with normal or low blood pressure despite increased renin and aldosterone levels and hyperplasia of juxtaglomerular apparatus due to mutations affecting diuretic-sensitive sodium-transport proteins

BASSEN-KORNZWEIG SYNDROME
congential abetalipoproteinemia

BAT WING EDEMA
pulmonary edema in perihilar distribution in approximately 5% of cases

BATEMAN'S SENILE PURPURA
purpura following trauma to severely sun-damaged skin of the dorsal forearm of elderly persons; months may be required for resolution of pigmentation from hemorrhage

BATSON'S PLEXUS
portal vertebral venous communications, may be responsible for isolated bone mets in sacrum or vertebral bodies from colorectal cancer

BATTLE'S SIGN
ecchymoses over the mastoid process in basilar skull fractures, generally occurring approximately 48 hours after event

BCG
Bacille bilié de Calmette-Guérin; Leon A. Calmette, French bacteriologist, 1863-1933; Camille Guérin, French bacteriologist, 1872-1961; attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin

BEAU'S LINES
horizontal depressions across nail plate, caused by a transient arrest in nail growth, can occur during acute stress (e.g., high fever, circulatory shock, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism); will manifest as Beau's lines as nail grows out

BECHTEREW'S DISEASE
ankylosing spondylitis

BECK'S TRIAD
in pericardial tamponade, distended neck veins, distant heart sounds, hypotension, i.e. rising venous pressure, falling arterial pressure, and decreased heart sounds, Calude S. Beck thoracic surgeon 1935

BECKER'S MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
X-linked, normal levels of dystrophin but function altered, average onset 11 y.o., age at death 42 y.o., CK elevated

BECKER'S SIGN
in aortic regurgitation, visible pulsations of the retinal arterioles

BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME
exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism

BEEVOR'S SIGN
lesions of T9-T10 paralyze lower but spare upper abdominal muscles, resulting in upward movement of umbilicus when abdominal wall contracts

BEHÇET'S DISEASE
aphthous ulcers, genital ulcerations, ocular inflammation (posterior uveitis), erythema nodosum, cutaneous pustular vasculitis, also synovitis, neurologic issues, and thrombophlebitis

BELL'S PALSY
seventh nerve palsy; seen as a complication in diabetes, tumors, sarcoidosis, AIDS, and Lyme disease

BELL'S PHENOMENON
physiological upward rotation of the eyeball triggered by contraction of the ipsilateral orbicularis muscle with resulting closure of the eyelid

BENCE JONES PROTEINS
free Ig light chains seen in plasma cell dyscrasias (e.g. multiple myeloma, AL-amyloidosis, light-chain deposition disease, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, MGUS, heavy-chain disease (mu) (rare), lymphoproliferative disease (rare), rifampin therapy (rare), filtered by glomerulus and then reabsorbed tubular cells; proteins are toxic to tubule cells

BENEDIKT SYNDROME
clinical picture from paramedian midbrain infarction from occlusion of the paramedian penetrating branches of the basilar artery affecting the third nerve root fiber, red nucleus, cerebral peduncle resulting in ipsilateral medial rectus palsy with a fixed dilated pupil and contralateral tremor, chorea, and athetosis

BENNETT'S FRACTURE
fracture of the base of the first metacarpal with involvement of carpometacarpal joint

BERGMAN MINIMAL MODEL
determinants of glucose disposal: phi-1 (acute insulin secretion), phi-2 (sustained insulin secretion), Si (insulin sensitivity), Sg (glucose sensitivity)

BERGMAN'S TRIAD
seen with fat emboli syndrome: 1. mental status changes; 2. petechiae (often in the axilla/thorax); 3. dyspnea

BERGMANN GLIOSIS
in ethanol abuse, proliferation of astrocytes adjacent to lost Purkinje cells between depleted granular cell and molecular layer of cerebellum

BERNARD-SOULIER DISEASE
absence of Gp Ib/IX, the von Willebrand receptor

BERNHEIM EFFECT
in aortic stenosis, right ventricular failure preceding left ventricular failure from hypertrophied ventricular septum bulging into and encroaching on right ventricular filling

BERNHEIM EFFECT, REVERSE
in pulmonary embolism, right ventricular failure causing septum to bulge into and compromise left ventricular filling

BERNSTEIN TEST
to test for GERD, acid perfusion test of esophagus with 0.1 N HCl and see if reproduces chest pain; limited sensitivity and specificity though

BERRY'S SIGN
in malignant thyromegaly, absence of carotid pulsation since the tumor tends to encase the carotid and muffles the pulsation

BERTIN, RENAL COLUMNS OF
the spaces between adjacent pyramids where cortical tissue extends into

BETZ CELLS
large pyramidal cells in layer 5 of primary motor cortex largest neurons in mammalian CNS; 30-40,000 Betz cells in precentral gyrus in one side of the brain

BEZOLD'S ABSCESS
abscess of mastoid tip

BEZOLD-JARISCH REFLEX
activation of receptors in the atria, great veins, and left ventricle causing increased parasympathetic tone and decreased sympathetic activity leading to a combination of hypotension and bradycardia with a sudden increase in coronary flow

|BI
BICKERSTAFF'S ENCEPHALITIS
brain stem encephalitis

BIELSCHOWSKY'S TILT TEST
in trochlear nerve palsy (which paralyzes the superior oblique muscle), elevation in the affected eye is greatest when the head is tilted toward the side of the involved eye and abolished by tilt in the opposite direction

BIER BLOCK
regional anesthesia of an extremity by placing a tourniquet and then infusing local anesthetic into a vein

BILLROTH I
antrectomy with gastroduodenostomy

BILLROTH II
antrectomy with gastrojejunostomy

BILLROTH'S CORDS
the splenic cords found in the red pulp between the sinusoids

BING'S SIGN
extensor plantar response by pricking the dorsal surface of the big toe with a pin suggesting upper motor neuron defect

BING-HORTON SYNDROME
erythroprosopalgia, attacks of facial pain associated with marked reddening of the ipsilateral half of the face associated with tearing and watery discharge from the nose, occurs during sleep and is of brief duration, believed to be due to irritaiton in greater petrosal nerve

BINSWANGER'S DISEASE
subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy, associated with hypertension; characterized by multiple lacunar infarcts and progressive demyelination limited to the subcortical area with characteristic sparing of cortex

BIOT'S BREATHING
succession of hyperpnea/hyperventilations and apneas (seen in increased ICP, drug-induced respiratory depression, brain damage, usually medullary level), but lacks typical crescendo-decrescendo pattern, abrupt beginning, and regularity of Cheyne-Stokes breathing (c.f. Cheyne-Stokes, cerebral level)

BIRBECK'S GRANULES
aka Langerhans's granules; a small tennis racket-shaped membrane-bound granule with characteristic cross-striated internal ultrastructure seen in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

BITOT'S SPOTS
in vitamin A deficiency, small, circumscribed, lusterless, grayish white, foamy, greasy, triangular deposits on the bulbar conjunctiva adjacent to the cornea in the area of the palpebral fissure of both eyes

BLOMSTRAND DYSPLASIA
rare lethal disorder characterized by an increase in bone density and advanced skeletal maturationfrom inactivating mutation in PTHR-1 gene (c.f. Jansen metaphyseal chondrodysplasia where there is an activating mutatino)

BLOOM'S SYNDROME
severe immunodeficiency, growth retardation, and predisposition to several types of cancers associated with hypersensitivity to a variety of DNA-damaging agents

BLOUNT'S DISEASE
idiopathic varus bowing of tibia

BLUMBERG SIGN
rebound tenderness

BLUMER SHELF
carcinomatous metastasis from a primary site high up in the peritoneal cavity, may accumulate in the stomach, felt through the anterior rectal wall as a hard shelf in the rectovesical or rectouterine pouch (pouch of Douglas)

BOAS'S SIGN
right subscapular pain due to cholelithiasis, <7% sensitive

BOBBLE-HEAD SYNDROME
in children with progressive hydrocephalus, rapid, rhythmic bobbing of the head

BOCHDALEK'S HERNIA
hernia through the posterior diaphragm, usually on the left, presents in infancy

BOCKHART'S IMPETIGO
follicular impetigo

BOERHAAVE'S SYNDROME
pressure rupture of the esophagus; can give rise to Hamman's sign

BOHR EFFECT
fall in pH leading to decrease in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin

BOHR EQUATION
Vd/Vt, for determining ratio of physiologic dead space

BONNET'S SIGN
banking of veins distal to AV crossings (grade 3) in hypertensive retinopathy; c.f. with Salus's sign and Gunn's sign

BONNEVIE-ULLRICH SYNDROME
skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities (e.g., lymphedema of hands and feet, nail dystrophy, skin laxity), short stature, webbed neck.

BORDET-GENGOU MEDIUM
for identifying Bordetella pertussis, medium contains high percentage of blood (20-30%) to inactivate inhibitors in blood; also has potato and glycerol

BORNHOLM DISEASE
coxsackie virus producing pleurodynia, fever, cough, sore throat, myalgias in shoulder, chest, and abdomen; Bornholm Danish island in Baltic sea

BOSTON SIGN
in thyrotoxicosis, jerking of the lagging lid

BOUCHARD'S NODES
bony spurs at PIP in OA

BOWDITCH STAIRCASE
increased heart rate increases the strength of contraction in a stepwise fashion as the intracellular calcium increases over several beats

BOWEN'S DISEASE
carcinoma in situ of penis or scrotum, usually presents as a single erythematous plaque, most often on the shaft of the penis or on the scrotum, peak incidence after 50s; or more generally, squamous carcinoma in situ

BOXER'S FRACTURE
fracture of the metacarpal neck, classically of small finger

BRADBURY-EGGLESTON SYNDROME
pure autonomic dysfunction characterized by low circulating catecholamines

BRANHAM'S SIGN
bradycardia after compression of AV fistula

BRILL-ZINSER DISEASE
recurrent form of epidemic typhus (Rickettsiae prowazekii); persistently infected as a source

BRIQUET'S SYNDROME
somatization disorder

BROCA'S AREA
left frontal speech area, important for articulating speech; in Broca's aphasia, because Broca's area near motor cortex and underlying internal capsule, a right hemiparesis and homonymous hemianopsia is almost always present in this type of aphasia

BRODIE'S ABSCESS
small, intraosseus abscess that frequently involves the cortex and is walled off by reactive bone

BROWN'S SYNDROME
in rheumatoid arthritis, vertical diplopia, clicking sensation when looking up and medially, and an apparent inferior oblique palsy, apparently from stenosing tenosynovitis of the superior oblique tendon and sheath

BROWN-SÉQUARD SYNDROME
loss of tactile sense, vibration sense, and limb position sense on the ipsilateral side and loss of pain and temperature sense on the contralateral side

BRUDZINSKI SIGN
flex the neck, watch the hips and knees in reaction to maneuver positive sign, flexion of hips and knees, suggests meningeal inflammation

BRUEGHEL SYNDROME
dystonia of the motor trigeminal nerve producing a widely opened mouth, named after painting by Flemish painter Brueghel (Neurol 1996;46:1768)

BRUGADA SYNDROME
defect in an ion channel gene resulting in abnormal electrophysiologic activity in the right ventricle and characterized by (1) ST segment elevation in V1-V3, (2) right bundle branch block, (3) sudden cardiac death, (4) grossly normal heart

BRUNNER'S GLANDS
in duodenum, submucosal mucous glands that secrete bicarbonate, glycoproteins, and pepsinogen II, virtually indistinguishable from pyloric mucous glands

BRUSHFIELD'S SPOTS
in Down's syndrome, small white spots on the periphery of the iris

BRUTON'S TYROSINE KINASE
mutation causes X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA also associated with defect in intact membrane-bound ( chain (it's essential for B-cell development) Btk found only in B cells

BUDD-CHIARI SYNDROME
occlusion of the hepatic vein, associated with polycythemia vera, pregnancy, postpartum state, oral contraceptives, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and intra-abdominal cancers, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma

BUERGER'S SIGN
in peripheral vascular disease, red foot becomes pale with elevation

BURKITT LYMPHOMA
tumor manifesting at extranodal sites; associated with translocation of c-myc gene on chr 8 with IgH locus (chr 14), kappa (chr 2), or lambda light-chain (chr 22) locus; associated with EBV infection in African variety

BURNETT'S SYNDROME
far-advanced milk-alkali syndrome, due to long-standing calcium and alkali ingestion; severe hypercalcemia, irreversible renal failure, and phosphate retention, may be accompanied by ectopic calcification

BUSCHKE-LÖWENSTEIN TUMOR
verrucous carcinoma involving penile glans and prepuce, associated with HPV

BYLER'S DISEASE
progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis from impaired biliary secretion of both bile acids and phosphatidylcholine, leads to death from liver failure before adolescence



Note: Eponyms Database Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D. (website: eponyms.net)

You can also revise eponyms using eponyms revision tool available at Eponyms Crammer



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