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Eponyms - K

Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D., Posted on Sunday, July 04 @ 00:00:00 IST by RxPG  

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Eponyms

KALLMAN'S SYNDROME
anosmia; hypogonadotropic hypogonadism stemming from failure of LHRH-expressing neurons to migrate, etc.

KANAVEL'S SIGN
four signs of tenosynovitis: 1. affected finger held in slight flexion; 2. pain over volar aspect of affected finger tendon upon palpation; 3. swelling of affected finger; 4. pain on passive extension of affected finger

KAPOSI'S SARCOMA
low-grade vascular tumor associated with HHV-8, four forms, classic (older men of Mediterranean or Jewish extraction), African, organ transplant-associated, and AIDS; differential for skin lesions includes bacillary angiomatosis from Bartonella

KARTAGENER'S SYNDROME
a triad of sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and situs inversus; also associated with ciliary dysfunction; Manes Kartagener, Swiss physician, 1897-1975

KASABACH-MERRITT SYNDROME
capillary hemangioma associated with thrombocytopenic purpura and extensive and progressively enlarging vascular malformations which may involve large portions of their extremities; bleeding commonly develops in the first year of life, secondary to chronic DIC triggered by stagnant blood flow through the tortuous abnormal vessels; anemia caused by red cell damage as blood passes through deformed vessels of the tumor

KASHIN-BECK DISEASE
deforming arthritis associated with selenium deficiency, identified in an area of China where soil is extremely low in selenium

KATAYAMA FEVER
acute schistosomiasis, after Katayama valley in Japan where S. japonicum endemic; seen in travlers but not in native people because of exposure in utero; symptoms of prostration, fever, sweats, myalgia, and diarrhea

KAWASAKI'S DISEASE
acute febrile illness of infants and children, characterized by cutaneous and mucosal erythema and edema with subsequent desquamation, cervical lymphadenitis, and complicated by coronary artery aneurysms (20%); associated with antiendothelial antibodies

KAYSER-FLEISCHER RINGS
a greenish yellow pigmented ring encircling the cornea just within the corneoscleral margin, seen in hepatolenticular degeneration, due to copper deposited in Desηemet's membrane (posterior limiting layer of cornea); seen in Wilson's disease (with neurologic involvement) and other cholestatic hepatic diseases

KEARNS-SAYRE-DAROFF SYNDROME
a mitochondrial disease with progressive ophthalmoplegia, retinal pigmentation degeneration, cerebellar ataxia, heart block, and elevated CSF protein

KEHR'S SIGN
pain in the left shoulder associated with splenic rupture

KELLY'S SIGN
visible peristalsis of the ureter in response to squeezing or retraction; used to identify the ureter during surgery

KENNEDY SYNDROME
bulbospinal atrophy; X-linked disease from CAG repeat expansion encoding androgen receptor apparently; leads to distal limb amyotrophy, bulbar signs, androgen insensitivity with gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and oligospermia

KERCKRING'S VALVES
plicae circulares (lining of small intestine)

KERLEY A LINES
in pulmonary edema, thin nonbranching lines several inches in length, radiating from hila, and not following the course of vessels or airways, attributed to thickening of connective tissue sheets which contain communicating perivenous and bronchoarterial lymphatics

KERLEY B LINES
in pulmonary edema, transverse lines 1-3 cm in length and 1-2 mm in width, arranged in a horizontal stepladder pattern, 0.5-1 cm apart along the lower lateral lung margins, extending to the pleura; lines visible in this area because pulmonary lobules are well-developed in this area and lines reflect thickening of, or fluid in, lymphatic vessels in interlobular septa; also seen in lymphangitic spread of malignancies.

KERLEY C LINES
in pulmonary edema, fine interlacing lines throughout the lung base producing a spider web appearance; controversial if unique lines v. crossing lines

KERNIG SIGN
flex patient's leg at both hip and knee, and then straighten knee; positive sign--pain and increased resistance to extending knee -> suggests meningeal irritation

KERNOHAN NOTCH
focal impression against the cerebral peduncle, pressure against notch in uncal herniation

KESHAN DISEASE
endemic cardiomyopathy in China associated with selenium deficiency

KIESSELBACH'S PLEXUS
vascular plexus on the anterior nasal septum, bleeding from, leads to most common form of epistaxis

KIKUCHI'S DISEASE
histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy with tenderness, fever, and night sweats

KILLIP CLASS
described in 1967, in myocardial infarction, I, no heart failure, 0.5% mortality; II, S3 and/or basal lung crepitations, 2.2% mortality; III, acute pulmonary edema, 19.2% mortality; IV, cardiogenic shock, 61.3% mortality (mortality rates current)

KIMMELSTIEL-WILSON DISEASE
intercapillary glomerulosclerosis from diabetes; lesion is PAS-positive material deposited at periphery of glomerular tufts

KIMURA'S DISEASE
large subcutaneous masses on head or neck of Asian males associated with eosinophilia

KLATSKIN TUMORS
tumors arising from the part of the common bile duct between the cystic duct junction and the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts at the liver hilus; notable for their slow growing behavior, marked sclerosing characteristics, and the infrequent occurrence of distal metastases

KLEIHAUER-BETKE TEST
testing for the presence of fetal blood cells in maternal circ

KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME
a rare form of periodic hypersomnia, occurring in males aged 10 to 25 years, characterized by periods of ravenous binge eating alternating with prolonged sleep (as long as 18 hours), along with behavioral disturbances, impaired thought processes, and hallucinations; acute illness or fatigue may precede an episode, which may occur as often as several times a year; thought to be a disorder of hypothalamically mediated satiety

KLIPPEL-FEIL SYNDROME
congenital fusion of two or more cervical vertebrae, producing a low posterior hairline, decreased movement, and a short neck that displaces the head anteriorly and inferiorly

KLUMPKE'S PALSY
lower plexus palsy affecting C8-T1 nerve roots

KLάVER-BUCY SYNDROME
1937 bilateral removal of temporal lobe (including amygdala and hippocampal formation) in monkeys, animals became tame, showed a flattening of emotions, exhibited remarkable oral tendencies (they put all manner of objects into their mouths), enormous increase in sexual behavior, including mounting of inappropriate objects and species, compulsive tendency to react to every object, failed to recognize familiar objects

KNIEST DYSPLASIA
autosomal dominant metatropic dwarfism associated with mutation in COL2A1

KOCH'S POSTULATES
criteria for linking a specific microorganism to a disease 1. organism must be found in lesion of disease; 2. organism can be isolated in single colonies on a single medium; 3. inoculation of culture causes lesion in experimental animals; 4. organism can be recovered from lesions in these animals

KOCHER'S INCISION
right subcostal incision for open cholecystectomy

KOCHER'S MANEUVER
dissection of the duodenum from the right-sided peritoneal attachment to allow mobilization and visualization of the back of the duodenum/pancreas

KOEBNER'S PHENOMENON
referring to physical trauma (rubbing or scratching) as a major factor in eliciting psoriasis lesions; also depigmented, sharply demarcated papules in vitiligo following minor trauma; may also be seen in lichen planus

KOEPPE'S NODULES
projections into the pupil seen in sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and other veitides

KΦHLER'S BONE DISEASE
aseptic necrosis of the navicular bone

KOHN, PORES OF
connections between alveoli

KOILOCYTE
characteristic cytoplasmic vacuole, hallmark of infection by papillomavirus

KOPLIK'S SPOTS
pathognomonic exanthem in measles

KOROTKOFF SOUNDS
sounds heard in between systolic and diastolic pressure; origin related to the spurt of blood passing under the cuff and meeting a static column of blood

KORSAKOFF'S SYNDROME
profound memory loss; mammillary bodies as well as portions of medial thalamus believed to be destroyed from thiamine deficiency accompanying alcoholism

KOSTMANN SYNDROME
inherited neutropenia, responds to G-CSF, may be due to environmental insults in bone marrow, characterized typically by a granulopoeisis impairment at the promyelocyte stage

KRABBE'S DISEASE
AR sphingolipidosis (sulfatidose), from beta-galactosidase deficiency, resulting in increased galactocerebrosides, mental retardation, blindness, deafness, paralysis, convulsions, total absence of myelin, globoid bodies in white matter of brain, fatal in early life

KRAUSE'S END-BULBS
sensory receptors for cold

KRUKENBERG'S TUMOR
metastatic GI neoplasia to the ovaries, produces bilateral metastases of mucin-producing, signet-ring cancer cells, most often of gastric origin

KάBLER-ROSS DYING STAGES
1. denial and isolation, 2. anger, 3. bargaining, 4. depression, 5. acceptance; described in 1969 by Elisabeth Kόbler-Ross

KUGELBERG-WELANDER DISEASE
juvenile spinal muscular atrophy, hereditary or sporadic, affects proximal limbs, gradually progressive

KULCHITSKY'S CELLS
neuroendocrine argentaffin cells present along the bronchial epithelium, particularly in the fetus and neonate; small cell carcinoma has granules similar to Kulchitsky's cells; origin of carcinoid tumors

KUPFFER CELLS
phagocytic cells of the mononuclear phagocyte series found on the luminal surface of endothelial cells in hepatic sinusoids; they metabolize old RBCs, digest hemoglobin

KUSSMAUL'S RESPIRATION
hyperpnea, associated with acidosis, especially DKA but also in uremia

KUSSMAUL'S SIGN
in constrictive pericarditis, jugular vein becomes more distended during inspiration (normally, jugular venous pressure decreases with inspiration since blood drains into heart with inspiration); though most common contemporary cause is severe right-sided heart failure (JAMA 1996: 275:632); generally negative in cardiac tamponade

KUSSMAUL-MAIER DISEASE
old name for polyarteritis nodosa

KVEIM-SILTZBACH TEST
an intradermal test for the detection of sarcoidosis, done by injecting Kveim antigen (a saline suspension of human sarcoid tissue prepared from the spleen of an individual with active sarcoidosis) and examining skin biopsies after 3 and 6 weeks; positive test, a noncaseating granulomatous reaction; sensitivity 35-88%, specificity 75-99% Morton A. Kveim, Norwegian dermatologist, born 1892


Note: Eponyms Database Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D. (website: eponyms.net)

You can also revise eponyms using eponyms revision tool available at Eponyms Crammer



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