RxPG - the perfect Rx for medical Post Graduate entrance blues!
Mobile Edition | Help/Newbie? | 24/7 Support
HOT | PrePG | MCQ | DNB | Careers | Books | Colleges | Dental | DocIndia | PLAB |  USMLE  | Australia | Canada | GLOBAL | OffBeat!
Articles | Forums | MCQ Crammer | Downloads | Mnemonics | Revision Tools | Recent Shouts | All Features


Eponyms - L

Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D., Posted on Wednesday, July 07 @ 00:00:00 IST by RxPG  

 FRIEND Add to My Pages   PRINTER Printer Friendly   FRIEND Email Story  FRIEND Download Story  Eponyms alerts 

Eponyms

LACHMAN MANEUVER
for diagnosing ACL tear, pull on tibia in anterior direction with knee flexed at 20-25 degrees (if tibia slides anteriorly >2 mm, positive)

LADIN'S SIGN
an area of elasticity on the anterior face of the uterus just above the cervix; felt on palpation through the vagina as early as the 5th or 6th week

LADY WINDERMERE'S SYNDROME
MAC pulmonary disease affecting fastidious elderly women in the dependent portion fo the lingula or the right middle lobe due to proposed habitual voluntary suppression of cough leading to the development of nonspecific inflammatory processes in these poorly draining lung regions, upon which MAC-PD engrafted. Chest 1992;101:1605-9

LAENNEC'S CIRRHOSIS
in alcoholic cirrhosis, residual parenchymal nodules that protrude like "hobnails" from the surface of the liver

LAFORA'S DISEASE
progressive myoclonus epilepsy, autosomal recessive, onset teenage years, characterized by seizures and cumulative neurological deterioration, death within ten years usually results in death within ten years of the first symptoms

LAMBERT, CANALS OF
direct accessory bronchioalveolar connections

LAMBERT-ETON MYASTHENIC SYNDROME
disease of neuromuscular junction associated with paraneoplastic process with proximal muscle weakness that improves with repetitive stimulation; associated with P/Q type presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies; 70% have malignancy, usually small cell cancer

LANCISI'S SIGN
giant v waves in tricuspid regurgitation

LANDAU-KLEFFNER SYNDROME
childhood disorder characterized by auditory verbal agnosia and seizures

LANDOLFI'S SIGN
in aortic regurgitation, systolic contraction and diastolic dilation of the pupil

LANGER'S LINES
lines used for elective incisions, developed by Karl Langer, an anatomy professor. from cadavers in rigor mortis

LAPLACE'S LAW
wall tension = pressure x radius (thus colon perforates preferentially at the cecum because of the increased radius and resultant increased wall tension)

LARON DWARFISM
autosomal recessive, growth hormone receptor defects, low IGF-1 levels

LASÈGUE'S SIGN
when patient is supine with hip flexed, dorsiflexion of ankle causing pain or muscle spasm in the posterior thigh indicates lumbar root or sciatic nerve irritation

LASSA FEVER
hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus, first isolated in 1969 in Nigeria, an arenavirus, spread through contact with secretions (e.g., urine) from infected rats; fatality 15-20% of hospitalized patients; can be treated with ribavirin

LAURENCE-MOON-BIEDL SYNDROME
obesity, retinitis pigmentosa, metal retardation, skull deformities, polydactyly, and syndactyly

LEBER HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY
mitochondrial DNA disease, progressive bilateral loss of central vision, presents 15-35 y.o, associated with cardiac conduction defects and minor neurological manifestations

LEFORT I FRACTURE
transverse maxillary fracture above dental apices, which also traverses pterygoid plate; nasal complex stable

LEFORT II FRACTURE
fracture through frontal process of maxilla, through orbital floor, and pterygoid plate; midface is mobile

LEFORT III FRACTURE
complete craniofacial separation; different from LeFort II in that it extends through the nasofrontal suture and frontozygomatic sutures

LEGG-CALVÉ-PERTHES DISEASE
self-limiting hip disorder of children, 4-8 y.o. (M:F 8:1) involving vascular compromise of the capital femoral epiphysis; perhaps some aseptic necrosis action too

LEIGH'S DISEASE
autosomal recessive disorder from defects in mitochondrial pathway for converting pyruvate to ATP leading to lactic acidemia, developmental problems, seizures, involvement of periaqueductal gray area, extraocular palsies, weakness, hypotonia, death within 1 to 2 years

LEINER'S DISEASE
seborrheic erythroderma associated with diarrhea and failure to thrive and to generate C5a chemotactic factor

LEMIERRE'S SYNDROME
orophayrgeal infection (usually by anaerobe Fusobacterium necrophorum) complicated by injernal jugular vein thrombosis and metastatic abscesses in lung, characterized by spiking fevers, tenderness of sternocleidomastoids; see ring enhancement with central lucency in IJV on CT

LENÈGRE'S DISEASE
sclerodegenerative disease of conduction system, particularly of right bundle branch and left anterior fascile in people over 50; associated with slow progression to complete heart block

LENNOX-GASTAUT SYNDROME
childhood seizure disorder associated with multiple seizure types, slow spike-wave EEGs, mental retardation, and resistant to standard anti-epileptic medications

LEOPOLD'S MANEUVER
at 28 weeks, four sequential palpations of gravid abdomen to determine the position of the fetus

LEPRECHAUNISM
1 in 4 million births, associated with elfin-like facies, decreased s.c. adipose tissue, acanthosis nigricans, and growth retardation, failure to thrive, and early death, insulin resistance

LERICHE'S SYNDROME
aortoiliac occlusive disease producing distal ischemic symptoms and signs, e.g. pulseless femoral artery: 1. claudication of buttocks, 2. impotence, 3. atrophy of buttocks (seen with iliac occlusive disease)

LESCH-NYAN SYNDROME
a complete lack of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT, involved in salvage pathway in purine synthesis), X-linked, hyperuricemia, severe neurologic deficits with mental retardation, self-mutilation, and in some cases gouty arthritis

LESER-TRÉLAT SIGN
the sudden appearance and rapid increase in the number and size of seborrheic keratoses with pruritus; associated with internal malignancy

LETTERER-SIWE DISEASE
acute disseminated Langerhans' cell histocytosis; associated with development of cutaneous lesions that resemble a seborrheic eruption secondary to infiltrations of Langerhans' histocytes over the front and back of the trunk and on the scalp; concurrent hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pulmonary lesions, and eventually destructive osteolytic bone lesions

LEV'S DISEASE
fibrosis or calcification extending from cardiac fibrous structures into to the conduction system

LEVINE'S SIGN
when describing angina, defining the constricting discomfort with a clenched fist over sternum; q.v. angina for sens and spec; Samuel A. Levine, U.S. cardiologist, 1891-1966; designated hand movements 80% sens 49% spec; Levine sign itself 14% sens for cardiac pain (BMJ 1995;311:1660)

LEVINTHAL PARADOX
magnitude of conformational search problem in protein folding; an unbiased search for all possible protein conformations would take a lifetime, yet proteins fold in microseconds to minutes

LEWY BODIES
eosinophilic intracytoplasmic bodies of alpha synuclein in neurons of substantia nigra and locus ceruleus present in Parkinson's disease

LEWY BODY DEMENTIA
most common dementia associated with Parkinson's disease characterized by Lewy bodies found in brain stem and cortex, visual hallucinations which may be exacerbated by the treatment for parkinsonism

LEYDIG CELL TUMORS
testicular tumor derived from the stroma, may find Reinke crystals (q.v.)

LHERMITTE'S SIGN
sudden electric-like shocks extending down the spine on flexing the head; may result from poseterior column lesion, toxic effects of radiation; (may be found in vitamin B6 toxicity); (may be found in vitamin B12 deficiency); seen in 3% of multiple sclerosis

LIBMAN-SACKS DISEASE
in systemic lupus erythematosus, intense mitral and tricuspid valvulitis with development of small, sterile vegetations

LIDDLE'S SYNDROME
severe low renin hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis that mimicked hyperaldosteronism but found to have low aldosterone levels; due to constitutively activating autosomal dominant mutation in beta subunit of epithelial sodium channel

LIEBERKÜHN, CRYPTS OF
intestinal glands found between villi

LI-FRAUMENI SYNDROME
mutant p53 allele inherited, predisposition toward breast carcinomas, sarcomas, and brain tumors, half have tumors before age 30, 70% before age 90

LIGHT'S CRITERIA
for separating transudate v. exudate; if at least one of the criteria is present, fluid virtually always an exudate: 1. pleural fluid/serum protein ratio > 0.5; 2. pleural fluid LDH/serum LDH ratio > 0.6; 3. pleural fluid LDH > 2/3 upper limit of normal serum LDH. Ann Intern Med 1972; 77:507

LISCH NODULES
in type I neurofibromatosis, pigmented iris hamartomas

LISKER'S SIGN
in thrombophlebitis or DVT, tenderness to percussion of the medial anterior tibial surface

LISSAUER'S TRACT
small diameter primary sensory axons (presumably mediating pain and temperature senses) on their way into the dorsal horn

LITTEN'S SIGN
diaphragmatic movement seen on one side but not the other side in unilateral phrenic nerve palsy

LITTRE'S HERNIA
hernia involving a Meckel's diverticulum

LÖFFLER'S SYNDROME
simple pulmonary eosinophilia, characterized by transient pulmonary lesions, eosinophilia in the blood, and a benign clinical course; lungs show alveoli whose septa are thickened by an infiltrate composed of eosinophils and occasional interspersed giant cells, but there is no vasculitis, fibrosis, or necrosis; associated with ascaris, strongyloides

LÖFGREN'S SYNDROME
sarcoidosis associated with erythema nodosum and fever and transient arthritis, bilateral hilar adenopathy; 10-15% of sarcoidosis present this way

LOOSER'S ZONES
radiolucent narrow lines that lie either at right angles or obliquely to the cortical outlines of bones and often transect them; bilateral and symmetric, found at the axillary margins of the scapula, lower ribs, neck of the proximal femurs, and posterior regions of the proximal ulnas; related either to stress fractures or to mechanical erosion by penetrating nutrient arteries; aka Milkman's fractures

LOU GEHRIG'S DISEASE
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (in France, Charcot's disease)

LOUIS, ANGLE OF
sternal angle

LOUVEL'S SIGN
in DVT, venous pain induced by coughing, prevented by pressing over proximal end of vein

LOVIBOND'S ANGLE
the angle made by the proximal nail fold and the nail plate

LOWENBERG'S SIGN
in DVT, two calves are wrapped with cuffs to see if there is assymetry in tolerance to pressure of 180 mm Hg

LÖWENSTEIN-JENSEN MEDIUM
medium for growing M. tuberculosis

LÖWENSTEIN-JENSEN'S MEDIUM
for growing out M. tuberculosis; contains malachite green, a triphenlyamine die like crystal violent, inhibits growth of unwanted organisms during 6 week incubation period as well as complex nutrients

LOWN-GANONG-LEVINE SYNDROME
enhanced AV node pathways, <0.12 s, no QRS widening, no delta waves

LUDWIG'S ANGINA
aggressive infectious process of the submandibular, sublingual, and submental fascial spaces frequently occurring as a result of infection from 2nd and 3rd lower molar; 54% mortality in preantibiotic era, now 4% described in 1836 by Wilhelm Frederick von Ludwig

LUGOL'S SOLUTION
5% iodine and 10% KI, a dose of 6.3 mg of I per drop, for giving iodine

LUND'S NODE
lymph node found in Calot's triangle, aka Calot's node

LURIA'S LAW
three antibiotics = 1 fungal infection

LUSCHKA, DUCTS OF
small tubular channels found buried within the gallbladder wall adjacent to the liver, communicates with the biliary tree, rarely patent accessory bile secretory ducts

LUSCHKA, FORAMINA OF
two laterally placed foramens exiting out of fourth ventricle

LUTEMBACHER'S SYNDROME
atrial septal defect with mitral stenosis; though mitral stenosis is often of rheumatic origin

LYELL'S SYNDROME
toxic epidermal necrolysis

LYNCH SYNDROME I
AD produces multiple colon cancers 2 to 3 decades earlier, predilection for proximal colon; Lynch syndromes most common forms of familial colon cancer, 5-10% of all cases of colon cancer; better prognosis than sporadic colon cancer; deficiency in mismatch repair genes in 85% of Lynch syndromes

LYNCH SYNDROME II
cancer family syndrome, all features of Lynch I with early onset of carcinoma at other sites including endometrium, ovaries, and stomach, also upper tract TCC


Note: Eponyms Database Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D. (website: eponyms.net)

You can also revise eponyms using eponyms revision tool available at Eponyms Crammer



4 (Excellent) 3(Good) 2(Good) 1(Bad)   


Recommended Books for Eponyms
 Books to read for Eponyms by RxPG

Related Eponyms articles
 Alphabetical List of eponymous medical signs
 Alphabetical List of Eponymous Diseases
 List of eponymous diseases by speciality
 Eponyms - Z
 Eponyms - U
 Eponyms - T
 Eponyms - S
 Eponyms - R
 Eponyms - Q
 Eponyms - P
 Eponyms - O
 Eponyms - N
 Eponyms - L
 Eponyms - K
 Eponyms - J
 Eponyms - I
 Eponyms - H
 Eponyms - F
 Eponyms - G
 Eponyms - E

Related Eponyms Discussions

Other articles by Andrew J. Yee, M.D.
 Eponyms - Z
 Eponyms - U
 Eponyms - T
 Eponyms - S
 Eponyms - R
 Eponyms - Q
 Eponyms - P
 Eponyms - O
 Eponyms - N
 Eponyms - L
 Eponyms - K
 Eponyms - J
 Eponyms - I
 Eponyms - H
 Eponyms - F
 Eponyms - G
 Eponyms - E
 Eponyms - D
 Eponyms - B
 Eponyms - C

 Eponyms FAQ
  FAQ: How to crack acid base questions?
  FAQ: MRCP for a Psychiatrist
  FAQ: What is the most common site for carcinoid?
  Browse all FAQs


Write an Article on Eponyms
You can share your exam experiences, preparation strategies, books you have read or just any information about Eponyms on RxPG website and we will publish it under your name.

Article Rating
Average Score: 5
Votes: 2




Most Read Article
Eponyms - D

Related Links
· Eponym Books on Amazon.com






ARTICLE TOOLS

· Eponyms section
· Articles by Andrew J. Yee, M.D.
· Add to my pages
· Printer friendly version
· PDF version
· Email article
· Feedback on this article
· Medical tutorials
· Related forum posts
· Related articles
· Related downloads
· Submit article
· Eponyms alerts
· Eponyms books
· Eponyms past papers


Most read story about Eponyms:
Eponyms - D



Server Status: 115 pages served in last minute. Page generation time: 0.050 seconds

Site Maps: [Books] [News] [Forums] [Reviews] [Mnemonics]

sitemap - top30 - centuries - testimonials


About Us :: Disclaimer :: Contact Us :: Reporting abuse :: Terms of Services :: Privacy Policy

Advertise with RxPG!
Made in India by RxPG Medical Solutions Private Limited

"RxPG" is a Registered Trademark

Chrome Web Store YouTube Twitter LinkedIn Wikipedia Facebook