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Eponyms - P

Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D., Posted on Saturday, July 17 @ 00:00:00 IST by RxPG  

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Eponyms

PAGET'S DISEASE OF BONE
osteitis deformans, characterized by an initial osteolytic stage followed by a mixed osteoclastic-osteoblastic stage, which ends with a predominance of osteoblastic activity and evolves ultimately into a burnt-out quiescent osteosclerotic stage; increased alkaline phosphatase and increased urine hydroxyproline

PAGET-SCHROETTER SYNDROME
effort thrombosis of the subclavian vein

PALLA'S SIGN
in pulmonary embolism, enlarged right descending pulmonary artery


PANCOAST'S TUMOR
apical lung cancers in the superior pulmonary sulcus tend to invade the neural structures around the trachea, including the cervical sympathetic plexus, and produce a group of clinical findings that include severe pain in the distribution of the ulnar nerve and Horner's syndrome on the same side of the lesion

PANETH CELLS
in small intestine crypts, cells with apically oriented bright eosinophilic granules and which appear to play a role in the mucosal immune system

PAP SMEAR
developed by Papanicolaou, reported in 1941

PAPEZ CIRCUIT
pathway from subiculum to the mamillary body and back to the cingulate gyrus believed to play a role in emotion (initially) and memory

PAPPENHEIMER BODIES
small dark blue irregularly shaped granules often in clusters, composed of iron, seen in sideroblastic anemia following splenectomy

PARINAUD'S OCULOGLANDULAR SYNDROME
preauricular node enlargement associated with chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis

PARINAUD'S SYNDROME
dorsal midbrain syndrome with supranuclear vertical gaze disorder from damage to posterior commissure with loss of upgaze, convergence-retraction nystagmus, downwards ocular deviation, lid retraction, due to hydrocephalus from aqueductal stenosis, pineal region tumors

PARKLAND FORMULA
total body surface area % burned x kg x 4; 1/2 in first 8 hours, second 1/2 given next 16 hours

PARRY-ROMBERG SYNDROME
acquired progressive hemifacial atrophy

PARSONAGE-TURNER SYNDROME
acute brachial neuritis

PASTIA'S SIGN
associated with scarlet fever (GAS or S. aureus rarely); finely punctate erythema has become confluent (scarlatiniform) on the lower trunk and thighs with petechiae having a linear configuration in the inguinal regions

PATAU'S SYNDROME
trisomy 13, 1/15,000 births, mental retardation, microcephaly, microphthalmia, brain abnormalities, cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, rocker-bottom feet, and congenital heart disease

PATRICK SIGN
hip pain on external rotation of the hip in hip joint disease that may refer pain to back and thighs

PAUL-BUNNELL-DAVIDSOHN TEST
extension of classic Paul-Bunnell test for heterophil antibody; antibodies not absorbed by guinea pig kidney cells but cause sheep erythrocytes to agglutinate

PAUTRIER'S MICROABCESSES
q.v. Sιzary-Lutzner cells

PEARSON SYNDROME
refractory sideroblastic anemia with vacuolization of marrow precursors and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction from mitochondrial DNA mutation

PEL-EBSTEIN FEVER
in Hodgkin's disease, unusual systemic manifestation of a periodic fever that is present for some days, remits, and then returns

PELGER-HάET ANOMALY
seen in blood of AML (e.g., M2) or myelodysplastic syndromes or inherited as autosomal recessive trait and maybe sideroblastic

PELIZEUS-MERZBACHER DISEASE
mutation in proteolipid protein on X chromosome, a major protein in CNS myelin; results in hypomyelination confined to the CNS, whitespread white matter dysfunction, leading to seizures, mental retardation, and death in childhood; see "tigroid" appearance on tissue sections stained for myelin

PEMBERTON'S SIGN
In superior vena caval obstruction, development of facial plethora, inspiratory stridor, and non-pulsatile elevation of the JVP when patient lifts arms over his head

PENDRED'S SYNDROME
autosomal recessive goiter and congenital sensorineural deafness from mutation in pendrin, a transport protein that affects organification of thyroglobulin; pendrin involved in transport of chloride and iodide

PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME
rare AD syndrome characterized by multiple hamartomatous polyps scattered throughout the entire GI tract and melanotic mucosal and cutaneous pigmentation around the lips, oral mucosa, face, genitalia, and palmar surfaces; patients have increased risk of carcinomas of pancreas, breast, lung, ovary, and uterus

PEYRONIE'S DISEASE
penile fibromatosis, a palpable induration or mass appears on the dorsolateral aspect of the penis. It may cause eventually abnormal curvature of the shaft or constriction of the urethra, or both

PFANNENSTIEL'S INCISION
low transverse abdominal incision with retraction of the rectus muscles laterally, used in ob/gyn procedures

PFEIFFER BACTERIUM
H. influenza, found in respiratory tracts of people ill with flu in 1890

PFEIFFER SYNDROME
craniosynostoses as well as limb defects, mutations in FGFR1, broad thumbs, broad great toes

PHALEN'S MANEUVER
median nerve compression, palmar flexion of the wrist for 1 minute exacerbates or reproduces symptoms; 75% sens 47% spec

PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME
seen in 95% of chronic myelogenous leukemia (210 kD tyrosine kinase), 2-5% childhood ALL (180 kD TK), higher percent in adult; reciprocal and balanced translocation between chr22 (bcr, breakpoint cluster region) and chr9 (c-abl); c-abl-bcr encodes a chimeric protein with tyrosine kinase activity; genomic imprinting, chr9 paternal and chr22 maternal

PICK BODIES
in neurons, cytoplasmic, round to oval, filamentous inclusions that strongly stain with silver, weakly eosinophilic; composed of neurofilaments, vesiculated endoplasmic reticulum, and paired helical filaments that are immunocytochemically similar to those found in Alzheimer's; don't survive death of host neuron like they do in Alzheimer's

PICK CELLS
characteristic swelling of neurons in Pick's disease

PICK'S DISEASE
subtype of frontal lobe dementia, characterized by language abnormalities such as logorrhea, echolalia, and palilalia (compulsive repetition of phrases), Pick bodies, Pick cells; occurs 1-5% as often as Alzheimer's

PICKWICKIAN SYNDROME
obesity hypoventilation syndrome defined by extreme obesity and alveolar hypoventilation during wakefulness, characterized by hypersomnolence, dyspnea, hypoxemia (cyanosis, polycythemia, and plethora), and pulmonary hypertension leading to RV failure and edema; based upon Charles Dickens' book "The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club" and the character Joe who was a "wonderfully fat boy, standing upright with his eyes closed"

PIERRE ROBIN SYNDROME
micrognathia and abnormal smallness of the tongue, often with cleft palate, severe myopia, congenital glaucoma, and retinal detachment; French pediatrician, 1867-1950

PINK DISEASE
acrodynia, occurs from exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapor, characterized by a body rash, swelling and irritation of palms and feet followed by skin desquamation, irritability, photophobia, fever, insomnia and profuse sweating, which may also follow oral exposure to mercury compounds

PISKACEK'S SIGN
asymmetry of the uterus with a well-defined soft prominence of the cornu, due to implantation near one of the cornua

PITTSBURGH PNEUMONIA AGENT
Legionella micdadei

PLUMMER'S DISEASE
toxic multinodular goiter

PLUMMER'S NAIL
onycholysis as a sign of hyperthyroidism, especially when it affects the ring finger

PLUMMER-VINSON SYNDROME
from iron deficiency, a microcytic hypochromic anemia, atrophic glossitis, and esophageal webs (upper esophagus); 10% develop squamous cell carcinoma

POEMS SYNDROME
polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopahty, M protein, and skin changes which may be seen in plasma cell dyscrasias

POISEUILLE'S LAW
flow proportional to fourth power of radius, inversely proportional to length

POLAND SYNDROME
amastia associated with hypoplasia of ipsilateral musculature (microsyndactyly or lack of one hand) and chest wall (atrophy of the ipsilateral pectoralis major) and GU abnormalities; 10% have dextrocardia or dextroversion

POLLE SYNDROME
Munchausen syndrome by proxy; after daughter Polle from second marriage of Munchausen to 17 y.o. Bernhardine at age 74, daughter died 1 year later (though paternity apparently suspect) (Lancet 1977;2:456); but daughter Polle apparently doesn't exist but name of town where Bernhardine came from (Pediatrics 1984;74:554)

POMPE'S DISEASE
type II glycogen storage disease, deficiency in ?-1,4-glucosidase (lysosomal enzyme) with consequent accumulation of glycogen, especially in the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle, characterized by cardiomegaly, muscle hypotonia, and splenomegaly, death from cardiorespiratory failure before age 3

POTT'S DISEASE
tuberculous involvement of the spine; occurs in about 2% of TB cases

POTT'S FRACTURE
fracture of distal fibula

POTT'S PUFFY TUMORS
extension of frontal sinusitis anteriorly into frontal bone causing a distinct swelling

POTTER'S SEQUENCE
from oligohydramnios (from e.g. renal agenesis, amniotic leak) leading to amnion nodosum, fetal compression which leads to pulmonary hypoplasia, altered facies, positioning defects of feet, hands, and breech presentation

POUPART'S LIGAMENT
inguinal ligament

PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME
deletion of 15q11-q13, paternally derived; uncontrollable hyperphagia after 12 months

PRATT'S SIGN
in DVT, presence off three dilated veins or sentinel veins over the tibia; dilatation persists when legs are elevated to 45 degrees

PREHN'S SIGN
elevation of painful testicle decreases pain of epididymitis

PRINZMETAL'S ANGINA
variant angina occurs at rest, manifests on EKG as episodic ST segment elevations, caused by coronary artery spasms with or without superimposed coronary artery disease; patients more likely to develop ventricular arrhythmias

PSAMMOMA BODIES
papillary thyroid cancer

PSOAS SIGN
pain elicited by extending the hip with the knee in full extension, seen with appendicitis and psoas inflammation

PUESTOW PROCEDURE
for chronic pancreatitis, side-to-side anastomosis of the pancreas and jejunum, for decompressing dilated main pancreatic duct and providing pain relief

PURTSCHER'S ANGIOPATHIC RETINOPATHY
in acute pancreatitis, sudden and severe loss of vision due to posterior retinal artery occlusion with aggregated granulocytes; discrete flame-shaped hemorrhages with cotton-wool spots; also seen in fat embolization; first described in 1919 by Othmar Purtscher


Note: Eponyms Database Author: Andrew J. Yee, M.D. (website: eponyms.net)

You can also revise eponyms using eponyms revision tool available at Eponyms Crammer



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