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Abnormal colours of urine

Author: RxPG, Posted on Monday, September 13 @ 23:23:57 IST by RxPG  

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Abnormal colours of urine is a frequent question in AIPGE and many state level PG entrance examinations. Since many students struggle to find a list of these abnormalities at one place, rxpg team has compiled a colour coded handy list of abnormal urine colours to provide a handy reference for PG aspirants.

Red Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Hematuria- microscopic examination of urine will demonstrate the present of RBCs.
  • Myoglobinuria- there will be a brownish-red colour. Often associated with ischemic muscle damage, crush injuries, and after vigorous exercise.
  • Hemoglobinuria- with intravascular HEMOLYSIS
  • "Pink diaper syndrome"- there is a pinkish discoloration on the diaper secondary to urate crystals in the urine. This is a benign condition.
  • Foods:
    1. Berries
    2. Beets
    3. Food colouring
  • Drugs:
    1. Dilantin
    2. Phenothiazines
    3. Adriamycin
  • Use of Deferoxamine will cause vin rose colored urine if serum Fe is elevated.
  • Presence of Serratia marcescens in the urine. This is a non-pathogen  

Red Hue in Urine - Causes

  • The red hue may be due to the presence of blood in the urine; this condition, known as hematuria, can be caused by one of several diseases or disorders, including lesions of the urinary tract, contamination during menstruation, disease of the prostate, trauma, tumours, malaria or stones in the urinary tract.

Orange Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Pyridium
  • Rifampin
  • Urate crystals

Pink Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Eating beetroot can produce urine that’s pink to deep-red in colour (a condition known as beeturia).
  • Urate crystals in the urine.

Vin Rose Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Use of Deferoxamine will cause vin rose colored urine if serum Fe is elevated.

Green Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Food colourings
  • Increased carotene in the diet ?
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection
  • Oxalate Poisoning
  • Oxaluria
  • Phenol poisoning can lead to green or black urine due to carboluria. Carboluria is due to oxidation of phenol to hydroquinone and pyrocatechol.

Brown or Black Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Hemoglobin
  • Bilirubin
  • Flagyl
  • Nitrofurans
  • Alkaptonuria- on standing, the urine will turn a dark colour.

Black Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Indicate the presence of a pigmented cancerous tumour
  • Carbolic acid poisoning.
  • Phenol poisoninig can lead to green or black urine due to carboluria. Carboluria is due to oxidation of phenol to hydroquinone and pyrocatechol.

Yellow Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Bile pigments
  • Blue
  • Methylene blue
  • A tryptophan absorption defect may lead to production of indigotin, an oxidative product

Milky or Cloudy Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Pus cells and bacteria in the urine
  • After sitting, urine may form crystals that makes urine appear cloudy

Bile Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Typically seen in jaundice; it indicates an abnormal retention of bile.

Blue Coloured Urine - Causes

  • Presence of indigo or of methylene blue (used as an antidote to certain types of poisoning).

Very Pale Urine - Causes

  • Results from its being extremely dilute, may be a pointer to diabetes insipidus.

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