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Ophthalmology High Yield Notes
Ophthalmology Section - Ophthalmology Study Group - MCQs, Notes, Study Tips and Strategies Forum - Ophthalmology Books


Pupil abnormalities
by nuke - 10362 reads, based on 3 votes
Bilateral Miosis – pupillary constriction Iridocyclitis, miotic eye drops (pilocarpine) Mydriasis – pupillary dilation Iridocyclitis, mydriatic or cycloplegic drops (atropine); midbrain (reflex arc) lesions or hypoxia; oculomotor CNIII damage; acute angle glaucoma Failure to respond (constrict) with ­ light stimulus Iridocyclitis; corneal or lens opacity; retinal degeneration; optic nerve CNII destruction; midbrain synapses involving afferent pupillary fibers or oculomotor nerve; impairment of efferent fibers that innervate sphincter pupillae muscle Argyll Robertson pupil Bilateral, miotic, irregularly shaped pupils that fail to constrict with light but retain constriction with ... More

Sjogren's Syndrome: Summary and Diagnostic Tests
by - 4273 reads, based on 2 votes
Early diagnosis and treatment are important for preventing complications. The symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome may overlap with or “mimic” those of other diseases including lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, dryness can occur for other reasons, such as a side effect of medication like anti-depressants or high blood pressure medication.... More

Dark room procedures for Ophthalmology Practicals: Part 2
by rxpg - 7507 reads, based on 3 votes
The use of Cycloplegia in retinoscopy In retinoscopy a common source of error is accommodation which is most active in young patients. When patient accommodates the refractive power of the eye increases resulting in a variable shift towards myopia. A simple solution would be to relax the accommodation by the use of a cycloplegic but cycloplegia leads to abolition of basal tone of the ciliary body muscles resulting in manifestation of latent hypermetropia. So if the patient accommodates there is a shift towards myopia, and if we use cycloplegia there is a shift towards hypermetropia; however, the latter situation is preferable as the amount of shift towards hypermetropia caused by a ... More

Dark Room Procedures for Ophthalmolgy Practicals: Part 1
by rxpg - 7034 reads, based on 7 votes
RxPG thanks Dr Sanjay Dhawan, Maulana Azad Medical College and GNEC, for providing these high yield notes. DARKROOM PROCEDURES : ENLIGHTENED Introduction Dark-room procedures (DRP) constitute an essential part of the examination of the eye beside being an important part of the undergraduate professional examinations. The main DRPs are:... More

Dark Room Procedures for Ophthalmology Practicals: Part 3
by rxpg - 12459 reads, based on 10 votes
IV. Direct Ophthalmoscopy First given by Herman von Helmholtz, ophthalmoscopy is classically done by just a plane mirror making use of the optical system of the patient’s eye. The light of the hand held self illuminated ophthalmoscope is directed to patient’s pupil while observing it through the fenestration in the ophthalmoscope. The examiner approaches the patient’s eye to a distance within anterior principal focus i.e. about 15 mm, where a virtual erect image of the fundus is seen formed behind patient’s eye. The optical system of the eye acts as a simple microscope which magnifies the image about 15 times. The magnification can be derived by dividing the diopteric power of the ... More

Stargardt's Disease
by - 10711 reads, based on 3 votes
Intoduction Stargardt’s Disease is an autossomal recessive hereditary disease included in the group of degenerative macular diseases, which consists in progressive lost of cones in fovea of both eyes, leading to variable levels of central vision loss. At fundoscopy, there’s often the presence of yellowish flecks around the macula, a condition called fundus flavimaculatus. ... More


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