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RxPG :: View topic - Important Topics in ENT  
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List: Important Topics in ENT
hello all again

some inportant cases in ent


1) "FACIAL NERVE---secretomotor N.fibres of SphenoPalatine Ganglion supply the Lacrimal gland, Injury to Facial N.at Geniculate Ganglion-->Dryness of eyes, Site of lesion of F.N. causing Lacrimal gland involvement is Matoid Foramen, FACIAL NERVE PALSY---common cause--Bell's Palsy, F.N.P.-due Trauma, Immediate Rx--Decompression,"----------((6))

2) "MIDDLE MEATUS OF NOSE---Frontal air cells,Ant. Ethmoide, Maxillary sinus opens in it, BULLA-ETHMOIDALIS, HIATUS SEMILUNARIS are seen, "-------------((6))

3) "NAOPHARYNGEAL CANCER---EBV is a causative agent, Spreads to Lymph nodes, commonest Presentation--Cervical adenopathy, there is High Incidence of NODAL METASTASIS, "-----------((6))

4) "OTITIS MEDIA---ASOM (ACUTE SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA) commonest cause--Pneumococcus -->very serious O.M., Pulsatile Otorrhea seen, 3yrs. Child with Fever, Ear ache, Congested T.M. with slight Bulge, it is the commonest cause of hearing loss?, Rx--Penicillin ( Myringotomy+ penicillin)"------------((6))

5) "NASAL POLYP---ANTROCHOANAL P.---& POLYPECTOMY-intranasal & ext.approach--arises from maxillary sinus, single & unilateral,"---------((6))

6) "ATROPHIC RHINITIS---Sx young operation done., ozaena is seen, anosmia, alkaline douche sol'n=NaCl, Na-borate, NaHCo3"----------((6))

7) "STRIDOR---effect of BILAT. RLN damage, most common cause in adult--malignancy, Rx of congenital laryngeal stridor =reassurance to parents, most common cause pf stridor in newborn--laryngomalacia,"---------------((6))

8) "TRACHEOSTOMY---complication commonly occur in children-is-difficult decannulation, indication--stridor, coma of long duration , diptheria, laryngeal obst.,flail chest, tetanus(cyanotic spells) , It is not used in F.B. / Obst.of post basal lobe /bronchus, commonest compli.of paediatric--Pneumothorax, "--------((6))

9) "TYMPANIC MEMBRANE---Blue Drum--seen in Secretory otitis media, nerve supply auriculotemporal nerve, T.M.-mobility--most mobile part-central, "----------((6))

10) "LITTLE'S AREA--- arterial supply= Ant.Ethmoidal art., Septal branch of facial art., Nasal branch of Sphenopalatine art., it is the commonest Bleeding site of nose / EPISTAXIS, or KIESSELBACH'S PLEXUS---Bleeding Area of nose is situated in the AnteroInferior surface of septum/medial wall of nasal cavity , ----------------((6))

11) "HEARING LOSS---SENSORENEURAL H.L.---(SNHL)--causes-old age, Cochlear Otosclerosis,Loud sound, Rx--COCHLEAR IMPLANT, Hydrops of Endolymphatic system-seen-in Alport's synd.,Usher's synd.,Pendred's synd.,"----------((5))

12) "MIDDLE EAR CAVITY---Nerve supply--Glossopharyngeal nerve,Floor--formed by INTERNAL JUGULAR BULB, In middle ear desease-there is - increased Threshold of AC & decreased BC (BC>AC), Resistance in middle ear-is-tested by IMPEDENCE Audiometry, Prominent Emenece over medial wall of midlle ear-is formed by-COCHLEA( BASAL TURNS),"----------((5))

13) "NASAL CAVITY---Function--Warming, Moistening, Filtration, NASAL SEPTUM---is formed by Vomer bone, Perpendicular bone of Ethmoid, Rostrum of Sphenoid, APPLE-JELLY NODULES on nasal septum--is due to Lupus Vulgaris, NASAL CARTILAGE-- 3 Paired & 1 Unpaired cartilages, NASAL MUCOSA---supplied by mainly Ext.Carotid artery,"-----------((5))

14) "RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE---partial RLN palsy produces Vocal cord in PARAMEDIAN position, closely related to Inf.thyroid artery, BILAT.RLN PALSY=ADDUCTED position & stridor, supplies all except cricothyroid( SLN),"----------((5))

15) "RHINOSPORODIOSIS---russel bodies seen, Rx- Dapson, fungal infec.,max.in Tamil nadu, Rx excision with cautery at base,"-----------((5))

16) "DNS / DEVIATED NASAL SEPTUM ---sharp DNS--Epitaxis, SPUR, recurrent sinusitis, Newborn with DNS= 20%, inf.tubinate hypertrophy, COTTEL'S TEST--patency of nares in DNS,"------------((5))

17) "FRONTAL SINUS--F.S. develops from ant. Ethmoidal cells, PNEUMATOCELE--fracture of F.S., not present at birth, FRONTAL MUCOCELE--"-----------((5))

18) "EPIGLOTTITIS---ACUTE--Commonest Organism causing it is -Hemophilus Influenze, DOC.in children--Ampicillin,commonest cause death-is-Respiratory obstruction,"------------((4))

19) "MYRINGOTOMY---done on POSTERO-INFERIOR Quadrant of T.M., commonest indication--Serous Otitis Media, a child with otitis media with Bulging T.M. with dull look, PUS in middle ear under tension,"-----------((4))

20) "PLUMMER VINSON'S SYND.---ass. With oesophageal ca., post cricoid growth, IDA, females, premalignant ( for hypopharyngeal ca., "---------((4))

21) "QUINSY---PERITONSILLAR ABSCESS---org.-streptococcus, quinsy+trimus--> Rx for 48 hrs. antibiotics only & then oral drainage,"----------((4))

22) "SEPTAL PERFORATION---of Cartilagenous nasal septum--septal abscess,leprosy ( ant. Septal perf.), Bony septal perforation--syphilis, Mucosa; inv. With nasal septum perforation in jaws-is-known as GANGOSA, "--------((4))

23) "MAXILLARY SINUSITIS---commonest / chronic sinusitis in children,"---------((4))

24) "PATCH IN THROAT--- / MEMBRANE IN THROAT --- (1) vincents angina, Black colour patch in mouth, (2) candida , (3) diptheria, (4) streptococcus, & IN THROAT OF ADULT----> Hemophilus, streptococcus, Neisseria, organism are seen but not E-Coli, "----------((4))

25) "GLUE EAR---8 yrs. Old child, Bilateral Conductive Deafness, seen in SECRETORY OTITIS MEDIA, or SEROUS OTITIS MEDIA---FLAT Tympanogram , "--------((4))

26) "MYRINGOPLASTY---Plastic Repair of T.M., note- initially audiometry done & then Sx done, or TYMPANOPLASTY---before T.plasty surgeon look for cochlear reserve, temporal fascia is used -it's metabolic rate is low, "-----------((4))

27) "BRAIN OTOGENIC ABSCESS---Mx-drainage of abscess followed by mastoidectomy, commonest site--temporal petrosal lobe, TEMPORAL LOBE ABSCESS---occurs in unsafe otitis media with high fever , convulsions "---------((3))

28) "ADENOIDECTOMY--- Indication--Recurrent Otitis Media, Sleep Apnoea synd., Middle ear infec. With deafness, C I --Submucous Cleft Palate, control of Hemorrhage--by Post.Nasal PACK, " ---------((3))

29) "ARNOLD'S NERVE---is a Branch of VAGUS Nerve, Irritation of this causes Ear Cough, Cough response caused while cleaning ear canal is mediated by stimulation of X Cr.N."----------(3)

30) "CARDIOSPASM / ACHALASIA CARDIA---difficulity for swallowing Liquids but not for solids, ass.with DEGENERATION of nerve plexus in the oesophagus, Barium Swallow-shows-Dilatation with smooth narrow ending, "--------((3))

31) "ENDOLYMPH---most imp. Constituent-K+ , is seen in Scala Media , Drains into Virchow Robin Space,"-------((3))

32) "EUSTACHIAN TUBE---most common cause of E.T. disease--ADENOIDS, LENGTH=36mm( 3.6 cm),"-------((3))

33) "GLOMUS TUMOUR---in middle ear, Location--Hypotympanum, Pulsatile Tinnitus ,Pulsatile tumour in EAM which Bleeds to Touch,"---------((3))

34) "GRADENIGO'S SYND.---abducent VI Nr. Palsy, Retroorbital Pain, pain over face, Aural discharge/ otorrhoea, Pralysis of Ext./lat Rectus, Nr. Inv.= 5,6, GRADENIGO'S TRIAD---Mastoiditis, Petrositis, L R palsy,"--------((3))

35) "MULTIPLE PAPILLOMA OF LARYNX---Rx Excision with Laser, common in Infants & Children, Laryngeal papilloma are usaually Multiple & VIRAL in origin, usual site of papilloma is larynx, Rx of single P.= Removal by Direct Laryngoscopy, "---------((3))


37) "OTITIS EXTERNA---MALIGNANT--caused by P.Aeroginosa, common in D.M., & OLD age,"----------((3))

38) "RHINOSCLEROSIS / RHINOSCLEROMA--- bacilli infec., Mickulitz & Russel bodies seen,"-------------((3))

39) "RINNE'S TEST---+ve seen in presbycusis, -ve(BC>AC)-->middle ear disease,"--------((3))

40) "CSF RHINORRHOEA--- ant.cranial fossa fractures / Cribriform plate fracture , most imm. Rx-prophylactic antibiotics& x-ray, "-----------((3))

41) "ETHMOIDAL SINUS--First sinus to appear after Birth, ETH.S. Adenocarcinoma--seen in WOOD workers & Nickel workers,"--------((3))

42) "MAXILLARY SINUS---maxillary antrum commonest malignancy=sq.cell ca., secondary deposits from M.S.-->submandibular L.N.'S,this is present at birth,"----------((3))

43) "SINUSITIS---bloood stainded rhinorrhoea, nasal blockage, facial edema, complication=orbital cellulitis, Sx-proof puncture,"---------((3))

44) "STAPEDIAL MUSCLE---supplied by facial cr. Nerve, STAPEDIAL REFLEX---protective against loud sound , mediated by VII & VIII CR. N.,"---------((3))

45) "SUPRAMEATAL SPINE OF HENLE---landmark on lat.surface of temporal bone which acts as a guide to surgery to the antrum,"----------((3))

46) "VOCAL FOLDS---& VOCAL FOLD CA.---Vocal folds are abducted by post.cricoarytenoid, in CA. L.N.'Smets never seen,,has good prog.,"----------((3))

47) "FRACTURES OF ZYGOMA--- undisplaced fracture--no specific Rx,"--------((3))

UNANSWERED: Creating separate cadre for mbbs in teaching faculty in medical colleges as tutors / demonstrators.


in ENT practical examination, these cases are important:
2) DNS
3) Nasal polyp
4) Atrophic rhinitis
5) Tonsillitis
6) Adenoids
7) Thyroid swelling
8) Cervical lymphadenopathy
9) Parotid swelling

you should know to perform autoscopy, examination of ear, hearing tests, anterior & posterior rhinoscopy, indirect laryngoscopy.

for theory, following are most important topics in ENT:


1) Anatomy- tympanic membrane, middle ear, ear ossicles, labyrinth, auditory pathway.
2) Physiology of hearing & equilibrium, tests of hearing, audiometry, tympanogram, BERA, caloric test.
3) Hearing loss- very imp. SN & NSN, ototoxicitypresbycusis, tests for non-organic HL, deaf child.
4) External ear- otomycosis, foreign body in ear, wax in ear, furuncle, preauricular sinus, diseases of tympanic membrane.
5) Middle ear- ASOM & CSOM, cholesteatoma, serous OM, Tb OM, complications of OM- most most imp, baro-trauma.
6) Otosclerosis, Meniere's disease, eustachian tube function tests..
7) Glomus tumour, acoustic neuroma.
8) Hearing aids, cochlear implant..
9) Otalgia & tinnitus..
10) Operative- mastoidectomy- very imp, myringotomy.
11) Facial nerve- anatomy, Bell's palsy, injury to facial nerve..
Nose & paranasal sinuses:

1)Anatomy- nasal septum, nasal cavity, maxillary sinus, frontal sinus, middle meatus..
2) Nasal deformities, rhinophyma, furuncle, vestibulitis.
3) DNS- very imp, septal hematoma, septal abscess.
4) Rhinitis- imp, atrophic, hypertrophic, sicca, caseosa, medicamentosa, allergic, vasomotor, others..
5) Rhinoscleroma, rhinosporidiosis, Tb, fungal infections..
6) Nasal polypi- very imp.
7) Epistaxis- very imp.
8) Rhinolith, maggots, CSF rhinorhoea, oro-antral fistula, fractures of mmaxilla..
9) Acute & chronic sinusitis- maxillary & frontal, carcinoma maxillary sinus.
10) Operative- SMR, septoplasty.

Oral cavity & Salivary glands:

1) Ulcers of oral cavity, ulcers on tongue, tongue in diagnosis, submucous fibrosis..
2) Leukoplakia, ca. lip, ca. tongue..
3) Luwig's angina, Vincent's angina..
4) Mumps, parotitis, parotid abscess, salivary calculi, Sjogren's syndrome, pleomorhic adenoma, Warthin's tumour, malignancy of parotind gland..

Pharynx & Larynx:

1) Anatomy- nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, larynx, physiology of phonation.
2) Adenoids- very imp.
3) Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, nasopharyngeal cancer.
4) Pharyngitis- acute & chronic.
5) Tonsillitis- very imp, acute & chronic, faucial diphtheria,
6) Quinsy-imp, retropharyngeal & parapharyngeal abscess.
7) Eagle's syndrome, Zenker's diverticulum
8) Laryngitis- acute& chronic, acute epiglottitis, croup, laryngeal diphtheria, atrophic laryngitis, Tb..
9) Laryngomalacia, Singer's nodes, vocal polyp, Reinke's oedema, laryngocele..
10) Laryngeal paralysis- very imp.
11) Cancer larynx- very imp.
12) Hoarseness of voice, stuttering, hyper & hyponasality..
13) Operative- Adenoidectomy & tonsillectomy- most imp, direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy & oesophagoscopy.
Oesophagus: Anatomy, dysphagia- very imp, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, achalasia cardia, carcinoma.

Thyroid: ectopic thyroid, goitre, Grave's disease, carcinoma thyroid, hyper- & hypo- thyroidism.


Aim Andhra Pradesh PG

👏 good questions
Thank u

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