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RxPG :: View topic - Ms.........mitral stenosis have a look  
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genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

MS.................MITRAL STENOSIS HAVE A LOOK
HELLO BUDDIES......................THIS IS GENO...... icon_smile.gif

LETS SEE MITRAL STENOSIS.................
ITS A VERY VERY IMP TOPIC DURING CLINICS SO HAVE A LOOK icon_biggrin.gif

UNANSWERED: Topics division/frequency in final mbbs question papers?

genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

LETS SEE ONE BY ONE.........................

FIRST CAUSES:

Causes

In infants and children, symptoms may be present from birth (congenital).In adults, mitral stenosis most commonly occurs in people who have had rheumatic fever.. Only rarely do other disorders cause mitral stenosis in adults.

In children, congenital mitral stenosis is more often part of a group of heart deformities.

Mitral stenosis prevents the valve from opening properly and blocks the blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. As the valve area becomes smaller, less blood flows forward to the body. The atrium swells as pressure builds up and blood may flow back into the lungs, resulting in pulmonary edema (fluid in the lung tissue).

Symptoms may begin with an episode of atrial fibrillation or may be triggered by pregnancy or other stress on the body such as infection (in the heart, lungs, etc.) or other cardiac disorders.

In children, mitral stenosis may run in families


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

NOW SEE SYMPTOMS


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

Symptoms

Difficulty breathing
During or after exercise
When lying flat (orthopnea)
Awakening at night with difficulty breathing
Cough PNDMay have blood in the sputum (hemoptysis)
Fatigue, tired easily
Frequent respiratory infections (such as bronchitis)
Chest discomfort (rare)
Tight, crushing, pressure, squeezing, constricting
Radiates to the arm, neck, jaw, or other areas

Increases with activity, decreases with rest
Sensation of feeling the heart beat (palpitations)
Swelling of feet or ankles
Poor growth in children


Note: There are often no symptoms in adults. However, symptoms may appear or get worse with exercise or any activity that raises the heart rate


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

DIAGNOSIS


AUSCULTATION ....................

LOUD S1 ..IT MAY SPLIT

S2 NARROW FIXED

MURMURS.......MID DYTOLIC MURMUR
ASSOCIATED MURMUR.....GRAHM STEEL MURMUR OF PUL REGURGITATION

ECG
LFT AXIS DEVITION IN MILD CASES AND IN SEVERE CASES RIGHT AXIS DEVIATION


Narrowing or obstruction of the valve or enlargement of the atrium may show on:

Echocardiogram
Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)
Doppler ultrasound
Chest x-ray
ECG (electrocardiogram)
Cardiac catheterization
MRI of the heart

This disease may also alter the results of the following tests:

Swan-Ganz (right heart catheterization)
Nuclear ventriculography (MUGA or RNV)
[/i][/b]


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

Treatment depends on the symptoms and condition of the heart and lungs. Persons with mild symptoms or none at all may not need treatment. Hospitalization may be required for diagnosis and for treatment of severe symptoms.

There are a number of different treatment options.

Medications include diuretics (water pills), nitrates, or beta-blockers. Digoxin may be used to treat atrial fibrillation. Anti-coagulants (blood thinners) are used to prevent blood clots from forming and traveling to other parts of the body.

Some patients may need heart surgery to repair or replace the valve. Replacement valves can be made from different materials, some of which may last for decades and others which can wear out and require replacement.

Percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy (also called valvuloplasty) may be considered instead of surgery. During this procedure, a catheter (tube) is inserted into a vein, usually in the leg, and up into the heart. A balloon on the tip of the catheter is inflated, widening the mitral valve and improving blood flow. This procedure is less likely to work in patients with severely damaged mitral valves.


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

Possible Complications Return to top

Pulmonary edema
Atrial fibrillation
Pulmonary hypertension
Right-sided heart failure
Stroke
Emboli (migration of clot) to the intestines, kidneys, or other areas


REMEMBER THESE COMPLICATIONS VERY WELL


rmh


smiley24.gif


Maddy42


Additions to MS

APEX IMPULSE Tapping.
MDM is heard best in left lateral position with bell of stethoscope. icon_smile.gif


VSD
Aim DNB Part 1

Hey nice job!!
Can u start discussin abt important diseases in the similar way???
It would be of great help!


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

yes i will...but now a days i m little busy with my sem ending xams so canoot do now.................so u plz continue adding new topics.........................ok


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

carvalos sign .................during inspiration murmur increases


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

dd with MR...........................due to mid diastolic murmur...........................................bur MR will have left vent enlargment which is absent in ms


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

dd with ASD.....................but in ASD there will be no left atrium enlargment


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

on ecg ms shows left axis deviation.......................................but in severe cases right axis deviation


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

friends 4 mcq in endo plz refer the this site...............................http://www.rxpgonline.com/postt85564.html


genodr
Aim AIIMS May 2011

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Essentials of Medical Pharmacology By KD Tripathi
Extensively revised and updated chapters to include recently introduced drugs, published information and therapeutic practices.
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